What is analytical philosophy

Analytical philosophy

A philosophical current that emerged from the work of the logicians Frege and Russell to renew logic at the end of the 19th century. This new logic was significantly further developed at the beginning of the 20th century by the Vienna Circle (Rudolf Carnap and above all Wittgenstein, who later became a professor at Cambridge) and applied to language in order to clarify its opaque use. It has shaped the entire Anglo-Saxon philosophy for more than a century. In contrast to the so-called continental philosophy (which for its part prefers phenomenology), analytical philosophy is primarily characterized by its method of precise analysis of language, which aims to track down the false, only supposed problems of philosophy caused by the ambiguity of everyday language use arise, and then to reformulate them to logically valid statements that have an empirically verifiable basis. This very rigorous method, breaking down to the utmost the details of the specific problems it examines, has proven its worth in both the philosophy of mind (Moore, Quine, Lewis, Ryle, Nagel) and the philosophy of language (Austin, Searle). , for action theory (Anscombe, Davidson), for political philosophy (Rawls, Nozick), aesthetics (Goodman, Danto) and even for metaphysics (Whitehead, Strawson, Kripke) and theology (Swinburne). Nowadays it is also widely used outside of philosophy, for example in cognitive science or communication theory.