What are the Symptoms of Blood Diseases
The wide range of blood diseases
What are blood disorders?
The adult human body has about 5 to 6 liters of blood, with men having about one liter more than women.
The blood is used to transport vital substances (e.g. oxygen), defense, signal transmission (e.g. through hormones), heat regulation, breathing, as a buffer (pH value) and for hemostasis.
Blood is formed in the bone marrow and is made up of various components.
For the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, blood contains erythrocytes (red blood cells with their pigment hemoglobin), leukocytes (white blood cells) for the specific and unspecific immune defense and thrombocytes (blood platelets) for hemostasis.
The most common blood diseases:
In the Anemia (anemia) there is a reduced oxygen transport capacity of the blood (function of hemoglobin). The body suffers from an insufficient supply of oxygen (hypoxia) due to the lack of hemoglobin. The most common form (approx. 80%) is iron deficiency anemia (sideropenic anemia), in which the hemoglobin deficiency can be caused, for example, by a stomach ulcer. The disease can be congenital, acquired, or caused by other diseases. Heavy bleeding, e.g. from the intestines, and an insufficient supply of iron can also promote anemia.
Anemia manifests itself in those affected by a drop in performance, fatigue, shortness of breath, palpitations and a pale skin tone. Iron deficiency anemia also includes brittle hair and nails as well as dry, cracked skin, headaches, diarrhea or constipation and flatulence. The anemia manifests itself in different forms, e.g. vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, vitamin B6 deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia or thalassemia. Once the primary disease has been treated, the anemia can be mild. Otherwise, anemia can become chronic and life-threatening.
Erythropenia means a lack of red blood cells in the blood, leukopenia means the lack of white blood cells.
At a Leukemia (blood cancer) Only a few people fall ill, but it is one of the most well-known blood diseases. The leukocyte formation in the bone marrow and the lymphatic organs is increased, there is an uncontrolled flushing of the malignant (malignant) white blood cells into different organs, whereby the cells required for blood formation are displaced. The causes of degeneration have not yet been clarified, but radioactive rays, cytostatics, smoking and immune defects can promote the development. The course is divided into acute and chronic. This shows fatigue, decreased performance, fever, night sweats, weight loss, loss of appetite, susceptibility to infection, development of anemia with its typical symptoms, enlarged lymph nodes, enlarged spleen or liver, increased bleeding tendency and neurological failures. The high susceptibility to infection can quickly lead to life-threatening situations.
The Haemophilia (blood disorder) is one of the most common hereditary diseases. The blood clotting is disturbed and leads to insatiable bleeding. About 80 percent of the sick suffer from the A-form, in which the coagulation factor VIII is present in too small amounts. In hemophilia B, there is a factor IX deficiency. The disease is inherited in an X-linked manner, and every X chromosome must be affected for the disease to develop. Coagulation factors are vital, a deficiency leads to bleeding that does not clot (do not close). Even in childhood, the disease manifests itself in the form of hematomas (bruises), which can occur even with the smallest bumps. Certain bleeding, e.g. in the head area, can lead to life-threatening situations.
The Von Willebrand Syndrome is an autosomal inherited (not on a sex chromosome) form of hemophilia. The Von Willebrand factor is a large protein molecule that connects the platelets with each other during bleeding and thus leads to coagulation. In the disease, the factor is absent, the same symptoms appear as in hemophilia type A and B. Due to a cellular bleeding tendency, there is increased bleeding from the mucous membranes (nosebleeds) or insatiable bleeding in the case of cuts. People with haemophilia or Von Willebrand syndrome have to be careful throughout their lives due to their incurability. A visit to the dentist or a necessary surgical procedure can lead to major problems (bleeding).
The Plasmacytoma (multiple myeloma) describes a malignant tumor that develops in the bone marrow as a result of the degeneration of a lymphocyte.
Hodgkin's disease (lymph gland cancer) is a malignant tumor of the lymphatic system (originating from the lymphocytes), which manifests itself as a painless swelling of the lymph nodes associated with night sweats, fever, abdominal pain and headache, enlarged liver (liver disease) or spleen, and weight loss. The Reed-Sternberg cells are differentiated for a reliable diagnosis.
The Non-Hodgkin lymphoma shows the same symptoms, but the Reed-Sternberg cells are missing. If diagnosed early, both types of lymphoma can be treated well using conventional medicine.
In addition, there are many other, but mostly rare diseases or disorders of the blood. Cytoses describe an increase in the number of cells in the blood (blood values), e.g. B. leukocytosis (as a reaction to certain diseases such as heart attacks or tumors).
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