How did Jyeshta Devi marry Shani Dev
HELMUTH V. GLASENAPP
RELIGION AND SOCIETY
IN TODAY'S INDIA
WITH 43 ILLUSTRATIONS
KURT WOLFF VERLAG
Copyright 1922 by Kurt Wolff Verlag A.-G. Munich.
The text was printed by the G. Kreysing printing house.
Printing of the pictures by F. Bruckmann A.-G. Munich.
He is born on earth as a blessing,
His doing sounds good in his father's ears.
Life's goals are given to
To whom his parents are as dear as his life.
"In India everything is religion." These words that one learned
Brahmano said to me during my studies in Bonn that
briefly and clearly characterize the peculiar position of the Indians
the world and the world over. The religion is that
The lifeblood of the Indian people, she dominates to a degree,
like hardly in any other country, the whole thinking and regulating
all action. The intricate threads of life are
for the Hindu it was the last visible foothills of one
supernatural power standing over and behind him, which, ge ^ -
mysteriously into the world of earthly phenomena
excelling in the natural and moral world order
The perfect primacy of religion in the spiritual life
the Hindus was recognized early on by Westerners.
A hundred years ago the Abbe Dubois wrote: During
of the long years of studying the customs of the Hindus
I have to state that it is never used, no matter how
insignificant and simple and, I must add, still itself
so obnoxious and disgusting to have found who is not on
founded this or that religious principle. Nothing remains
Let go: everything is laid down in rules, and the basis
all of their customs are plainly and simply religion. For this reason
the Hindus consider all their customs and practices inviolable;
because, since they are religious in their deepest character,
See it as as sacred as religion itself. "
^) J. A. Dubois
Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, "p. 31.
Although since that time scientific research into the
Religions of India has made great strides and the inter-
eat at them is lively in large circles, one encounters many
misconceptions. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that
there are probably a number of excellent books in the German language,
which the religions of the Indian past, the
Vedism and Buddhism, since it is almost entirely
There is a lack of works that deal with living forms of belief
Deal with India. It appeared to remedy this deficiency
command to finally bring together that religious-social system
to show comprehensively which of its spiritual meaning and
first in India today in terms of the number of its confessors
In the present book the attempt shall be made
den, a larger readership, although not exhaustive, but
but in the basic lines a complete picture of the religious and
social beliefs, institutions and customs of the Hindus
and in this way to a deeper penetration into
to stimulate this wide area.
In my work I received multiple support
which I would like to commemorate at this point. Mei-
I owe the poetic rendering of most of them to a father
the verses communicated without naming a translator (cf.
in the index under verses "). The Lords Privy Councilor Grnwedel,
Privy Councilor Jacobi, Consul Neuen Hofer subjected individual
Parts of the manuscript of a review, Professor R. Simon
read a correction, everyone supported me with valuable advice
hit. Messrs Franz Koenigs, Helmuth v. Frill
and G. G. Krohs allowed me to reproduce in theirs
Owned hand paintings; but above all I owe them
Administration of the Prussian Museum for Nations
thanks for the great willingness with which you send me pictures
and other objects in abundance for photographic
Recordings provided. Finally, the
lay and the editors of the New Orient "extend my thanks
spoken for permission, some of my first in the columns
essays published in this journal, in part expanded
and re-published in this book.
to be allowed.
Berlin, on the 2l \. December 1921.
Dr. Helmuth v. Glasenapp,
Private Lecturer in Indian Philology at the University.
On the pronunciation of Indian words
I. THE BASICS.
1. India and the Indians i
2. The essence of Hinduism 6
Overview of the historical development of Hinduism.
IL THE OBJECTS OF RELIGIOUS THINKING.
A. The inanimate.
1. Inanimate nature
2. Works by human hands
Sacred words, signs and symbols
B. The living beings of the earth.
1. The world of plants 62
2. The animal world 66
The human world
C. The ghosts.
1. The spirits of the deceased
2. Heroes and Saints 88
3. Nature spirits and demons
D. The gods.
I. The Individual Deities 109
a) The village deities
b) The lower gods of Veda 112
c) The world keepers
d) Skanda imd Ganesha 116
e) The three great gods
f) The mother goddesses and women of gods
2. The Nature of the Gods 148
a) The relation of the gods to one another 148
b) The qualities of the gods and their relationship to others
E. Overcoming polytheism.
III. THE RELIGIZE LITERATURE.
A. Holy Revelation.
1. The four Sanhits of Veda 178
2. The Brhmanas and Upanishads 182
The meaning of the Veda in the spiritual life of India today 187
B. The sacred tradition.
1. The textbooks 190
2. The Mahabharata
4. The Puranas 198
The Agamas and Tantras 201
G. The rest of the literature.
1. The basic religious trait of secular literature in India .... 206
2. Hymns of God and Mythological Tales 208
Seals of ethical and didactic content 221
IV. THE WORLD AND LEARNING VISION.
A. The natural philosophical views.
1. The world view 227
2. The ideas of body and soul
B. The ethical views.
1. The Law of Eternal Retribution 239
2. The three goals of worldly life
G. The philosophical systems.
1. Historical Review 272
2. Skeptics and Materialists 275
The six orthodox systems
a) Vaisheshika and Nyya
b) Snkhya 284
c) Yoga 289
d) Mimnsa 300
e) Vedanta 302
Indian philosophy and western thought. . . . 311
V. SOCIAL LIFE AND CULTUS.
1. The caste system 318
2. Religion in everyday life
Temple and Sacrifice
The festival calendar
Priest and ber
6. Superstition and Sorcery 368
VL THE SECTORAL.
1. The position of the sects within Hinduism
2. The worshipers of a Most High God
a) The Vaishnavas 384
b) The Shaivas 390
c) The Shktas
d) The Brahmas, Sauras, Ganapatyas 398
The Smrtas 400
Monotheistic reformers hostile to images 401
VIL THE INFLUENCE OF THE EVENING COUNTRY.
1. The Influences of the West 406
2. The awakening of the new spirit 408
Social reform effortsji 414
4. The National Movement 418
The Revival of Religion 432
a) The all-Hindu union ......... 432
b) Defense against Christianity
c) The sects and their propaganda 440
d) Religious new formations
e) The Vedanta and its mission in the east and west. . .
To the pictures 477
THE INDIAN WRTER
In the present book, the Indian words are used in general
think given in the style of writing that the Indians themselves use
is when they use the Latin script and they themselves
from scientific transcription only by doing without
on the use of diacritical marks. It's closed
something like j "in English just", like a white
ches dsch "; c roughly like ch" in English child ", so how
a soft ch ";
something like y "in English young", that is
like a German j "; v like tnendes w"; sh like German seh ";
So sh represents the two Indian sh sounds, the palatal s
as in Shiva and the cerebral s as in Vishnu.
s is always to be spoken sharply, z like soft German s ".
The different n-sounds of Indian (n, n, n, n, m) are
represented by n; they are before gutturals and sibilants
The h in Indian kh, gh, ch, jh, th, ie, ph, bh is as a
clearly audible breath to speak (i.e. kh "roughly as in
German block house "etc.).
h in the middle of words (e.g. in Braihm ") is a pure one
Chest sound, so it must not be used as a stretching consonant (as in the
German framework ") remain unspoken, yet how this is
has been naturalized many times, as a ch (as in the German word
Roof "). The difficulty of getting the h in front of
Making sound audible prompts many Indians to do so at the
Put pronunciation after the following consonants by adding
she z. B. Bramh "speak.
The so-called Visarga h is a weak h, in which the previous
Vowel or the last part of a preceding diphen-
thongs faintly reverberates, thus agnih =
agnihS gauh = gauh "
The stress is regulated in Sanskrit words according to the quantity
the vowels. Long vowels are, i,, e, o, ai, au. The sound will
withdrawn as far as possible, up to the fourth from the last
Syllable when the penultimate and third to last syllable are short (dhitaram),
to the third to last, if the penultimate one is short (Varuna, Saras-
dad); is the penultimate syllable by nature or position; d. H.
by the following double consonance, long, it carries the tone (Ku-
In summary, it can be stated that in general
will never go wrong using the Indian words like the la-
teinischen stresses and in them the consonants
v, s, sh un-
dangerous like in English, all other sounds like in
Germans, but the rules about h must be particularly
In accordance with Indian usage, I write Indian words
ter usually in the Sanskrit form in which they are written into the
New Indian languages (especially the Hindi language) migrated
are. Where the New Indian forms do not match the Sanskrit forms
correspond, the Sanskrit root form was given. In some
The customary New Indian form was used in cases (e.g. Day-
nand "instead of Sanskrit Daynanda", Dev Samj "instead of Sanskrit
Deva Samja ", Singh" (today in Gurmukhi often written like this-
ben) instead of Sanskrit Sinha
Words that have become well-versed in German, such as B. Brah-
mane (Sanskrit: Brahmana) were written without a character
ben; Place names that appear with us in a certain form
like Benares (Varnasi, Banras), Calcutta (Ka-
likta) etc. appear in this form, while otherwise
if possible the correct Indian spelling, where
was mean, was retained, e.g. B. Panjb (not Punjab "or
Pendschab "), Lucknow (not Lucknow") etc.
I. INDIA AND THE INDIANS
is the land of countries, is the most beautiful country of all.
It is our rose garden, in it we are the nightingales.
Our heart stays in the home, whether we are driven out of it.
You should know that we are where our hearts stayed.
O holy river of the Ganga, may you still remember the day.
When my people came down to you to drink from your flood?
See the mountain, the neighbor in heaven, greatest of all mountain giants;
Our shield and our watch, our guardian be praised.
Mountain, in whose green sheath thousands of rivers play,
Mountain, whose beauty all peoples must envy us.
Greeks, Romans and Egyptians faded away and had to give way,
Our name is given, our tribe's mark and mark.
Will God, since we feud, we children of a country?
India is my home and all of us, we are Indians!
Isn't it a miracle that we are still alive today, I have to ask.
Since the sky has been so hostile to us for gray days?
IkbJ, we have no friend anywhere on earth;
Lonely we bear our deep heartache inside.
These verses by Mohammed Ikbl, one of the most important contemporary
gensic poets of India, give in brief and descriptive ways
Show a picture of the wonderful land that the Ganges crosses
rustles in the crown of the Himalayas, and of the strange people,
1 V. Glasenapp, Hinduism I
conscious of its own size, the oppressive
presently endured with sadness and in the memory of one
glorious past longs for a better future. Ikbl
comes from a Hindu family that was only a few generations ago
converted to Islam and during an extended stay
stop in Europal) the occidental education in itself. He
thus, to a certain extent, unites in itself the multiple
existing, running side by side and crossing each other
ligise, social and cultural elements that in the past
have fought against each other so often. The future of India
but will depend on whether it is possible to use these elements,
as the poet hopes to continually reconcile and agree with one another
merge and with it the total population of a continent
to permanently unite to common feeling and wanting.
Because in truth, India is a continent. Framed by
from the mighty mountains and seas, it has always been a distinct
bordered geographical unit. Almost as big as Europe
with the exclusion of the former Russian Empire, it is inherent in itself
the greatest geographical and climatic contrasts: mountains
with eternal snow and hot plains, fields of lush fruit
viability, impenetrable forests and deserts.
Life is just as varied as the design of the soil,
that thrives here: the plants, the animals, the people. The three-
a hundred million inhabitants of the vast country
d. H. So a
Fifth of all humanity
show each other the
greatest differences. Iranians live in the northwest
Tribes like the Afghans and Balucans, above average
tall, fair-skinned people, with broad skulls, black
Hair, dark eyes, long noses and an abundance of beards.
In the Himalayas and Assam we find Mongols, little ones
petite people with yellowish skin and arid talk
visible hair, with protruding cheekbones, sunken
roots of the nose and slanted eyelids. In Kashmir,
living in Panjb, in Rajputna, briefly in the whole north
^) Mohammed Ikbl studied in Heidelberg, which he in a beautiful
Glorified poem. (This song is translated in the correspondence
Journal of the news center for the Orient *, Volume II, p. 118.)
predominantly tall, light brown Indo-Aryans with an elongated
Skull shape and narrow nose. In the south, on the other hand, we meet
the smaller dark brown Dravids with long heads, broad,
flat noses and wavy hair. In addition to these four main
types, according to Risley, there are still three mixed types: one
Mongolo-Dravidian in Bengal, an Ario-Dravidian in the
United Provinces and another in the West Indies, in Bom-
bay and in the adjoining areas, which is called Scytho-Dravidian
or is called alpine. All of these different types come
seldom presented in complete purity; We find mountains everywhere
and mingling caused by the immigration of Semites,
Hamites, Europeans and others so multifaceted picture that the
Population of India in anthropological and ethnographic
drawing offers, make it even more varied.
When we talk about the residents of the peripheral countries and
not wandering, there are primarily two languages,
to whom the bulk of the Indian population belongs: the
Dravids and the Indo-Aryans.
The Dravids are among those races of men above theirs
Origin so far no unanimity among scholars
has been achieved. While some they are of the Caucasian race
want to attribute and others to associate them with the Turanians
bring, some consider it to be an independent human
group. The Dravids inhabited most of the ancient times
India; whether, as some assume, they even reflect the Indian
population, or whether they are not in the semi-
look for wild tribes that still exist today in the mountains
and forests, but the Dravids themselves only to India
have immigrated, stands there. In any case, it is a fact since they
formerly populated a larger part of the Indian continent
than nowadays, and as it continued after the Aryan invasion
South were pushed down. The approximately 63 million Dravids
fall into a number of peoples who share different languages
talk. The most important of these languages are Tamil (18 million
Spokesman), the Malaylam
Millions), the Canarian
Millions) and the Telugu
The Indo-Aryans belong to the Indo-European language group.
to which, as is well known, the Teutons, Celts, Romans, Slavs
ven, Iranians, etc. can be expected. The language of which
the languages of these Indian peoples are derived, the sans-
crit, spoken by the Aryans, what millennia
before the beginning of our era from Iran to northwest India
penetrated and then fighting, colonizing and with the up to now
mingling with other inhabitants, moving further and further behind
Spread south. The Sanskrit, which was grammatically
had been fixed to the table, was also later to the present
retained as the language of literature and scholars. In dealing
Already before the time of the Buddha, Sanskrit-related oral
types, the so-called Prkrit dialects, which make up
then developed the modern Indo-Aryan languages. These
Aryan languages are now used by more than 280 million
People talked: the most important of these are: Punjabi
lions), Rjasthani (14 million), Hindi in the narrower sense (4o
Millions), Eastern Hindi
(22 million), Bihri
(35 million), Oriy
(ig MilUonen), Bengali
Million), Gujarati (11 million)
Millions). But it would be a mistake, all the peoples,
who speak these languages are therefore to be regarded as pure Aryans.
Rather, the Aryans have become involved with the other peoples of India
to a large extent mixed up and much of them accepted, them
but even their language and culture imprinted, so there the
linguistic affiliation to the Aryans is not an anthropological
needs to conform.
The brief overview given here already shows how one
nigfach the population of India and how large the number of
Languages that are used there. If you add them to the here
still called the vast amount of the less common that we
have passed over here, as well as the Iranian, Mongolian, Tibetan
Burmese, Malay, Kolar etc. dialects that
find application, so one can get an idea of the
Differences occurring within the Indian people
are in place and facing the advent of a unified
national thought, as is the case with the great minds of the present
longing for, hindering in the way.
The languages of the Indian peoples will be just as diverse
also their manners and their thinking. The diversity of the Indian
Spiritual life reveals itself most clearly also on that person
Regions in which, as Hegel says, all manifold structures
and further entanglements in human relationships, T-
everything that has value and respect for the
where he seeks his happiness, his fame, his pride,
finds its center "
in religion. No other people
the earth has such diverse religious views
and so many foreign forms of belief
taken as the Indians. This is partly explained by a
special metaphysical disposition and versatility
of the Vlkish elements that came together here, however
undoubtedly greatly favored by the geographic
and climatic conditions. The great generosity with which
Mother Nature had endowed most of India with,
OS made possible here for the human being, with little effort of the body
To gain food and necessities, while often very strong
tropical heat invited him to carefree contemplation and the
his imagination of the inexhaustible richness of nature
always stimulated anew. India can rightly be called
denote and at the classical land of religious studies
learn how to recognize him as an unsurpassable example
diverse and how capable of development the characters are,
in which the religious thinking of mankind struggles for expression.
The religions of India fall into two groups: i. in the one
indigenous religions that arose on Indian soil and
2. Into the foreign religions introduced from abroad
were. The primitive religions belong to the first group
Indigenous people who still live in remote areas in almost un-
cultivated condition, also Hinduism, Jainism
and Buddhism; to the second group of Parsism, the Ju-
dentum, Islam and Christianity.
The numerical ratio of the followers of the various regions
ligions in the Indian suburbs (excluding Burma, the Andamans and Ceylon)
to each other results from the following table, which shows the
data from the Census of India '* of 1911
Hindus (including Sikhs) 220194004
.M ^ ??
Christian 3j565 556
With its 220 million followers, Hinduism has
Religions of India most professors, giving it two thirds of all
Indians belonged to. The Hindus form in most of India
the absolute majority: in Madras they make 89 0/0,
united provinces 85 0/0, in Bihr, Orissa, the central provinces
and Berr 82 0/0, in Bombay 70 0/0
and in Assam 54 ^ / 0 of the population
2. THE NATURE OF HINDUISM
Hinduism is one of the great religions of the world
Number of his confessors in fourth place; only Christianity,
Buddhism and Islam gather a greater crowd of
Hang around as him. Despite the fact as the Hindus
make up about one-seventh of humanity, the majority is
Educated about no religion so poorly informed as
rade over him. This is because it is not an actual one
World religion, but rather its field of activity (if I
Danish branches in East Asia, East and South Africa, America
Rika and Australia except) limited to India, and then has
and above all his reason for being different from those mentioned
three religions and most of the others in a peculiar way
The European is used to everything, every religion to theirs
By a few characteristic catchwords as mono-
theistic or polytheistic, natural religion or moral religion,
as world-affirming or world-negative, as national or universal
to characterize cistically. In Hinduism, every
seek such a classification. Looking at him on his
Doctrines of faith, it appears rather as a desert quod-
libet of contradicting ideas and superstitions ''. One can from
to him in this respect not as of a uniform religion
but must speak of an encyclopedia of the whole
Talking about religion. Some Hindus worship fetishes, celestial
bodies, plants and animals, they pray to good and bad spirits
star, to heroes and deified saints, they have a pantheon,
which can hardly be surpassed in richness, and others
worship only one spiritual God again. Some face God
theopanist ^) as one with the world, and others deny it
In general, the existence of a supreme ruler of the world. The one
bring bloody sacrifices to the object of their worship
and others shy away from killing vermin themselves. The one
result in orgiastic lust, and others seek through ra-
send asceticism to kill their senses. if you look at the multiform
activity of the forms in which Hinduism expresses itself then is
1) "Pantheism" takes the view: All is God, i. E.
it is itself the carrier and object of the relation of the religious and aesthetic
Feeling. Here being God is a function of the world. The world
itself is increased to the absolute. The most extreme contrast imaginable
to pantheism is what is usually equated with it and
confused: l theopanism ".
Here it is said
God is all. 1
All-being is here a function of the deity. That is the diametrical one
Contradiction to :, t) as All is GottyXDeity is the real, the
World only its secondary function. This view has, in the sharpest
In contrast to pantheism ^ the tendency to diminish the world and
to finally perish, namely in the deity. In there
it different degrees. The first stage of this theopanism is
then acosmism. To speak of pantheism at this stage,
is absurd, thoughtless on the earlier stages. "In agreement
with these apt remarks by R. Otto (Vishnu-Nryana ".
Texts on the Indian mysticism of God. I, (Jena 1917) p. 59f.) Was in
this book instead of the one usually used, but as Otto showed
has, erroneous expression pantheism "always the designation Theopanis-
mus "applied because a pantheism in the sense of the Stoics or
Giordano Bruno's does not exist in India, but there is a theopanism
comparable to that of the Christian mystics, a theopanism that
himself in the teaching of Shankara to the point of complete denial of the
Reality of the world, up to acosmism increases.
it is as if all the stages were found there, which the religious
Consciousness of humanity has gone through from animism and
Demon cult of the savages and the polytheistic natural religions
up to the spiritualistic-ethical revelation religions mo-
notheistic and theopanistic stamp.
When the Hindus have such different beliefs
and one can pursue such disparate ethical and cultic ideals
speak of Hinduism as such at all? Gives
there is something that connects all of these conflicting ideas and
put a common stamp on all of them? The unifying
The bond that binds them all together is not that
shared belief in certain gods or keeping the truth
certain religious teachings, but a complex of certain
generally recognized socio-ethical basic beliefs.
All over the world an eternal law is revealed to the Hindu,
the dharma. This Dharma manifests itself as a law of nature in
the properties peculiar to a thing or a being
are, if it is supposed to be a real representative of its genre,
z. B. in the downward flow of the water, in the milk giving of the cows.
But it still manifests itself as a moral law, as that
Norm, the sum of the ethical and legal regulations,
messengers and duties that a being has to fulfill for his own purpose
to comply with natural determination. The Dharma is infinite-
lich; He can therefore only deal with finite beings to a limited extent
Apply extensively. The innumerable beings that make up the world
people are subject to the Dharma to varying degrees.
latent amount of the obligations to be fulfilled by them.
speaks a greater or lesser state of morality and ritual
Purity. For the Hindu, people also disintegrate into one great
Number of categories that are more or less
seek to realize the rich part of the Dharma and
correspondingly at a higher or lower level of purity
are located. Be about three thousand such classes of people
adopted in India, the so-called castes, d. H. endogamous
Groups of people sharing the same traditional job
exercise and through fixed, inherited rights, obligations and requests
visions are connected to a whole. These boxes are
those classified under four classes, as Brahmins or priests,
Kshatriyas or warriors, Vaishyas or farmers and commercial
driving and ultimately as Shdras, as the plebeians who the three
The upper classes are seen as impure and inferior.
Still under the Shdras are all people who are not those of
follow these still to be fulfilled laws of purity, i.e. all non-
Hindus, the indigenous people, the Mohammedans, Christians etc. The
manen one as this in physical and ethical terms as well
also in terms of their employment, theoretically am
most correspond to the Hindu ideal of purity. You are the
appointed guardians of the law because they are familiar with the sources of the
Dharma are best known. Knowledge of the divine and
human right they draw from the eternal revelation
writings, from the Vedas. The Veda, a large collection of
religious scriptures, at different times, long before the
At the beginning of our era, is considered by all Hindus as the un-
fallible treasure of all earthly and unearthly knowledge. On
this authority or on the traditional
In the end, all the different views, beliefs
laws and rites are based, which within the individual society
social classes are in force and some of which like the
honoring certain gods, belief in transmigration of souls,
celebrating certain festivals, performing certain ceremonies
nien, the ban on killing cattle and eating their meat that
Custom of burning the dead, receiving a religious one
Initiation formula (mantra) by a Hindu teacher
(Guru) et al. are so general that they often contain a character
teristic of Hinduism is seen.
The decisive factor for belonging to Hinduism is therefore
half belonging to a general as a member of Hinduism
recognized caste, the fulfillment of the usual religious,
ritual, moral and social duties, the enjoyment of her
rights granted, recognition of the primacy of Brahmins
as the privileged priesthood and the conviction of the
Infallibility of the Veda as the holy revelation.
Anyone who has these points, even if only theoretically and externally
lent, corresponds, is a Hindu, he likes one according to his faith
Be an animist, polytheist, monotheist, theopanist, or atheist. There
membership of a caste usually only through birth
can be attained, one can only be born as a Hindu.
Since affiliation with Hinduism is determined by observance
ter regulations and in the tacit non-contestation of the car
rode of the Yeda and the Brahmins consists; is not a Hindu
someone who believes what the Hindus (or most of them)
believe, but someone who does what the Hindus (or most
of them) t \ m. \
This demarcation of affiliation with Hinduism is now
but not a fixed one, but a flowing one. You probably hit the main
It applies to most Hindus, but does not apply to all
In the Census Report of 1911,
Volume X, p.
shares J. T. Mrten
because he was investigating 82 Hindu castes from the Central
provinces whose individual strength
of the total population
tops and the total
92% of the total population
make found a fair number of these points on
they do not apply. In its calculation there are the following
Relatives of Kasten,
a) who deny the supremacy of the Brahmins,
28/401 ^ 2 people
b) who do not employ any Brahmins as priests,
c) who do not use the mantra from Brahmins or other all-
receive commonly recognized Hindu gurus,
6809716 people 43 0/0
d) who do not worship the great Hindu gods,
e) who do not recognize the authority of the Veda,
3 Ol 4 023 people 200/0
f) who are not allowed to enter Hindu temples,
Persons 2 5 0/0
which by touching them with members of the upper castes
(including the better Shdras) cause ritual impurity,
3060282 people 20
h) which beef eat,
4888570 people 33
i) who bury their dead,
May the numbers given by Mrten be correct or
in their entirety, however, they prove how hopeful
go it is, a definition of the return path that is satisfactory in all parts
to find duism. This is why some researchers have the suggestion
made that one should at all consider any delimitation of the term
Refrain from Hinduism, and any Indian that cannot be clearly seen
one generally considered to be outside of Hinduism
Belonging to a religious community, call it Hindu. So wrote
Sir Denzil Ibbetson: "Every native who was unable to define his
creed, or described it by any other name than that of some re-
cognised religion or of a sect of some such religion, was held to be
and classed as a Hindu. "
This delimitation of the term Hinduism is complete
dictated by practical considerations. It came the same way
like the word Hindu itself.
then penetrated into North India, they referred to the local population
residents, who are very different from them, especially
altogether as "Hindus" and later also expanded this name
on all other Indians. The word Hindu is apparently cor-
rums from the word Sindhu, the Indian name of the river
Indus, from which the Greeks used the name Indian "
had derived. Over time, this word became common
eiui the Indians themselves, so even modern pandits tried
have to understand it as Sanskrit through artificial interpretations
wise and give it a religious meaning. This derivative
tungen (e.g. from Ayendu ", a name of the goddess Durg, or
from there "and you" driving away pain) but are of course willing-
The Hindus do not have their own name for themselves.
eat because they didn't need one. They came to one
actual awareness of their peculiarity only at the time when the
1881, Panjb, p. 101.
Mohammedans and later the Portuguese Christians with them
Fire and sword demonstrated as they represent a special
formed a group for themselves. By then, the Indians had like them
still do it today in theory, to consider oneself as the real
representation of mankind, and all other Vl-
kers with whom they came into contact as Yavanas (Greeks),
Hnas (Huns), Mlecchas (barbarians) who only
Because of their purity and customs, but not essentially of
they would be different.
Since their religious beliefs are not based on a particular historical
ric personality can be traced back, could the
Hindus also do not so firmly surround this with a creed
borders like Christians and Mohammedans. The orthodox
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