What are amorphous urates
Synonym: urinary sediment
English: urinary sediment
The Urine sediment consists of the solid, undissolved components of urine. Some of these components occur under physiological conditions, but some are also an indication of a pathological process.
The collection and examination of the urine sediment is largely standardized. 10 ml of fresh urine is centrifuged for about 5-8 minutes at 400 g. Then 9.5 ml of the supernatant are discarded and the sediment is taken up in the remaining 0.5 ml with a pipette. A drop of this is placed on a slide and covered. The observation takes place uncolored in a phase contrast microscope with approx. 400x magnification. The counting of cells in the sediment is carried out in a counting chamber.
After drying on the slide, the urine sediment can also be stained in order to e.g. B. to recognize cells or bacteria better. The staining methods used include Giemsa staining and Gram staining.
3 Sediment components and their significance
- Small numbers of erythrocytes are usually harmless, but they can also indicate glomerulonephritis, a tumor of the kidney or urinary tract, urinary tract stones or an injury.
- White blood cells can indicate inflammation of the kidney or urinary tract.
- Squamous cells can occur more frequently in urinary tract infections, but they are mostly found in the urine of healthy women.
- Urothelial cells, together with leukocyturia, often point to an inflammatory process in the renal pelvis or urinary tract.
- Renal epithelial cells occur in the case of toxic damage or viral diseases of the kidney in the urine sediment.
- Fat granule cells are tubular cells with embedded fat droplets and occur in nephrotic syndrome.
- Bacteria in the urinary sediment indicate a bacterial infection of the urinary tract. However, they can also be caused by contamination when collecting the urine sample or by storing the urine for too long before the examination.
- Fungi often appear together with bacteriuria, but are usually of no diagnostic significance.
- Trichomonads are an indication of trichomonads colpitis or cystitis in women.
- Cylinders are assembled elements in the form of renal tubules and can consist of different materials:
- Salts such as calcium oxalate, amorphous phosphates, triple phosphates or urates are generally of no diagnostic significance. If they occur more often, one speaks of a crystalluria.
- Cysteine in the urine sediment indicates a metabolic disease with excretion of the amino acid.
- Leucine and tyrosine are mostly excreted in the urine in the case of degenerative disorders of the liver.
- Crystals that cannot be assigned should remind you of excreted drugs.
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