What is the radial scheme of power distribution
Design of the LV circuits
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Essential configuration options (see Fig.D17 to Fig.D24):
Radial configuration with a single feed line
This simplest of all configurations is used as a reference. All consumers are connected to a single source. This configuration provides the minimum level of availability. If the power supply source fails, there is no redundancy.
Fig.D17: Configuration with radial single line
The power supply is provided by 2 distribution transformers connected to the same HV line. If the distribution transformers are close together, they generally feed in parallel to the same LVMD.
Fig.D18: Parallel feed
In parallel with two NSHV systems
To increase availability in the event of a power outage or maintenance work on one of the distribution transformers, the LVMD can be divided into 2 parts with a coupling switch. This configuration generally requires an automatic tie switch.
Fig. D19: Parallel configuration with two LVM systems and switchover option via coupling switch
Switchgear not authorized to substitute network (simple connection with disconnection option)
A number of non-critical circuits can be connected to switchgear specially designed for this purpose. The connection to the LVHV can be interrupted if necessary (overload, generator operation, etc.)
Fig.D20: Switchgear not authorized to substitute network
Spatially separated transformers can be connected via busbar trunking systems. Critical consumers are supplied by one or more transformers. The security of supply is improved because the supply of the consumer is secured in the event of failure of a source.
Fig. D21: Coupled switchgear
- Complete: Each transformer can supply the entire system.
- Partly: Each transformer can only supply part of the system. In this case, some of the consumers must be switched off (load shedding) if one of the distribution transformers fails.
NS ring configuration
This configuration can be viewed as an extension of the configuration with two coupled switchgear. Typically 4 transformers are connected to the same HV line and feed a ring line via a busbar trunking system. In this case, each consumer is supplied by a group of transformers. This configuration is well suited for large systems with a high load density (in kVA / m2). If all consumers can be supplied by 3 distribution transformers, there is full redundancy in the event of failure of one transformer, since the supply of the consumers is ensured at every point of the busbar trunking system. If this is not the case, operation with reduced power should be considered (with partial load shedding). This configuration requires special planning of the protection scheme to ensure full selectivity under all fault conditions.
Fig. D22: NS ring configuration
Double-sided NS feed
This configuration is used when maximum availability is required. The basic principle is based on 2 independent energy supply sources. Example:
- 2 transformers with supply from various HV systems,
- 1 transformer and 1 generator,
- 1 transformer and 1 UPS.
An automatic transfer switch prevents the sources from being connected in parallel. With this configuration, preventive and corrective maintenance work on all outgoing electrical distribution devices is possible without interrupting the power supply.
Fig. D23: Double-sided LV feed with automatic switchover
A system can consist of several, differently configured sections, depending on the required availability of the various consumer types. Example: generator and UPS, supply of individual sections via cables or busbar trunking.
1: Simple supply, 2: Coupled switchgear, 3: Double-sided NS feed
Fig. D24: Example of a combined configuration
The most likely and most common properties for the various configuration options of the low-voltage supply are summarized in the following table:
|Properties to consider||configuration|
|Radial||Parallel||Load shedding||Coupled||ring||Double sided|
|Topology of the site||any||any||any||1-5 steps up to 25000m2||1-5 steps up to 25000m2||highly available systems|
|Choice of location||any||any||any||Medium or high||Medium or high||any|
|Power requirement||<2500kVA||any||any||≥ 1250kVA||≥ 2500kVA||any|
|Load sharing||Locally concentrated consumers||Locally concentrated consumers||Locally concentrated consumers||Medium or uniform distribution||Uniform distribution||Locally concentrated consumers|
|Sensitivity to business interruptions||Long break||Long break||Load shedding||Long break||Long break||Short or no interruption|
|Sensitivity to electrical interference||Low sensitivity||High sensitivity||Low sensitivity||High sensitivity||High sensitivity||High sensitivity|
|Other factors||/||/||/||/||/||Double-sided supply of the load|
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