Why are Nihang Sikhs also called Brahmakshatriya
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Sikhism is the fourth-largest amongst the medium-sized world religions, and one of the youngest.8million Sikhs, which makes up 0.39% of the worlds population. Approximately 75% of Sikhs live in Punjab, where they constitute over 50% of the states population. Large communities of Sikhs migrate to the neighboring states such as Indian State of Haryana which is home to the second largest Sikh population in India with 1.1million Sikhs as per 2001 census, and large immigrant communities of Sikhs can be found across India. However, Sikhs only comprise about 2% of the Indian population. 
In 1940, a few Sikhs such as the victims of Komagata Maru in Canada proposed the idea of Khalistan as a buffer state between an independent India and what would become Pakistan.  These leaders, however, were largely ignored. The Golden Temple and Akal Takht were occupied by various militant groups in 1982. These included the Dharam Yudh Morcha led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, the Babbar Khalsa, the AISSF and the National Council of Khalistan.  Between 1982 and 1983, there were Anandpur Resolution demand-related terrorist attacks against civilians in parts of India.  By late 1983, the Bhindranwale led group had begun to build bunkers and observations posts in and around the Golden Temple, with militants involved in weapons training.  In June 1984, the then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi ordered Indian Army to begin Operation Blue Star against the militants.  The fierce engagement took place in the precincts of Darbar Sahib and resulted in many deaths, including Bhindranwale, the destruction of the Sikh Reference Library, which was considered a national treasure that contained over a thousand rare manuscripts,  and destroyed Akal Takht. Numerous soldiers, civilians and militants died in the cross fire. Within days of the Operation Bluestar, some 2,000 Sikh soldiers in India mutinied and attempted to reach Amritsar to liberate the Golden Temple.  Within six months, on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhis Sikh bodyguards assassinated her. The assassination triggered the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.  According to Donald Horowitz, while anti-Sikh riots led to much damage and deaths, many serious provocations by militants also failed to trigger ethnic violence in many cases throughout the 1980s. The Sikhs and their neighbors, for most part, ignored attempts to provoke riots and communal strife. 
There are two competing theories on Guru Nanaks teachings.  One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis,  and states that Nanaks teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God, and not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism and Islam in the 15th century. [ 181] The other states that Nanak was a guru. According to Singha, Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood. But it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. He is an illumined soul.  The second theory continues that hagiographical Janamsakhis were not written by Nanak, but by later followers without regard for historical accuracy, and contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak.  The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, but is extended to all Sikh gurus, as well as the words of past, present and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation . The Sikh revelations include the words of non-Sikh bhagats, some who lived and died before the birth of Nanak, and whose teachings are part of the Sikh scriptures. 
The last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire Duleep Singh converted to Christianity in 1853, a controversial but influential event in Sikh history. Along with his conversion, and after Sikh Empire had been dissolved and the region made a part of the colonial British Empire, proselytising activities of Christians, Brahmo Samajis, Arya Samaj, Muslim Anjuman-i-Islamia and Ahmadiyah sought to convert the Sikhs in northwestern Indian subcontinent into their respective faiths.   These developments launched the Singh Sabha Movement.  
Sikhism is an integral part of many emerging markets, including Southeast Asia and Pakistan, not to mention its native India. Understanding the Sikh principles gives you an understanding of how it fits into world religions and a better footing for conducting business in a connected world. Harvard in partnership with edX.org, offers a comprehensive overview of the Sikh religion in its course, Sikhism Through Scriptures. You can learn about the acts of the tenth guru, the last living one, as well as the gurus before him. Youll examine the holy scripture, both the last and the initial compiled by Guru Arjan, to understand how Sikhs view the world and each other.
Sikhism assumes that every act and every thought will have a consequence and postulates a natural law of cause and effect (see also karma). A central theme is overcoming egoism. According to the founders of the religion, the main obstacle to inner and social peace is clinging to oneself and to worldly things (Maya).
After the Gurus death, Baba Banda Singh Bahadur became the commander-in-chief of the Khalsa.  He organized the civilian rebellion and abolished or halted the Zamindari system in time he was active and gave the farmers proprietorship of their own land.  Banda Singh was executed by the emperor Farrukh Siyar after refusing the offer of a pardon if he converted to Islam. Ranjit Singh achieved a series of military victories and created a Sikh Empire in 1799.
Sikhs participated and contributed to the decades-long Indian independence movement from the colonial rule in the first half of the 20th century. Ultimately when the British Empire recognized independent India, the land was partitioned into Hindu majority India and Muslim majority Pakistan (East and West) in 1947. This event, states Banga, was a watershed event in Sikh history.   The Sikhs had historically lived in the northwestern region of Indian subcontinent on both sides of the partition line (Radcliffe Line). According to Banga and other scholars, the Sikhs had strongly opposed the Muslim League demands and saw it as perpetuation of Muslim domination and anti-Sikh policies in what just a hundred years before was a part of the Sikh Empire. As such, Sikh organizations, including the Chief Khalsa Dewan and Shiromani Akali Dal led by Master Tara Singh, condemned the Lahore Resolution and the movement to create Pakistan, viewing it as inviting possible persecution; the Sikhs largely thus strongly opposed the partition of India.  During the discussions with the colonial authorities, Tara Singh emerged as an important leader who campaigned to prevent the partition of colonial India and for the recognition of Sikhs as the third community. 
Great Britain gave India its independence on August 15, 1947. The former colony was divided and the state of Pakistan was established. Millions of people, including many Sikhs, had to relocate from the resulting Pakistani part to the Indian part. During the struggle for independence, riots broke out and many people died. After independence, political tensions arose between the Hindu-influenced central government and religious minorities, including the Sikhs. Under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, the Sikhs were granted the Punjabi-Suba, their own language province, in 1966 after numerous political protests. The areas dominated by Hindus were separated and amalgamated in the newly established state of Haryana. In 1973 Sikh leaders passed the Anandpur Sahib resolution. In it they called for the establishment of Chandigarh as the sole capital of the Punjab, greater political autonomy and a revision of Article25 of the Indian constitution, which, contrary to their self-image, assigns the Sikhs and other religious minorities to the Hindu category.
Sikhism does not differentiate religious obligations by gender. God in Sikhism has no gender, and the Sikh scripture does not discriminate against women, nor bar them from any roles.  Women in Sikhism have been in positions of leadership, including leading in wars and issued orders or hukamnamas.   
After unsuccessful negotiations, today's religious center of the Sikhs, the Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar, was stormed by Indian troops on June 3, 1984, a major holiday (Operation Blue Star). However, the number of victims is controversial, and in some cases significantly higher numbers are given.
Sikhs believe in one God. They believe they should remember God in everything they do. This is called simran. Sikhs believe everyone is equal in Gods eyes. For this reason Sikh men are all given the surname Singh which means lion and the women are given the surname Kaur which means princess. Sikhs believe that to worship is to live an honest life and care for others. Sikhs believe they should hold jobs which help others and society. This service to others is called sewa. In addition Sikhs believe in giving a tenth of what they earn to others. The work Sikhs do to help others is organized through the temples they belong to. They do not believe in drinking alcohol or smoking.
ikk ankr sat (i) -nm (u) karat purakh (u) nirabhau niravair (u) akl (a) mrat (i) ajn saibhan gur (a) prasd (i)
Sikhism- The word Sikh (pronounced sickh) means disciple or learner. The Sikh religion was founded in Northern India in the fifteenth century by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and is distinct from Islam and Hinduism. Sikhs believe in three basic principles; meditating on the name of God (praying), earning a living by honest means as well as sharing the fruits of ones labor with others. Sikhism rejects caste and class systems and emphasizes service to humanity.
The rebirth (reincarnation) is a painful cycle, because the soul many times the loss z. of parents, of your own family and of your own body.
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