How do you learn different styles of jazz



1 JAZZ () JAZZ is omnipresent. No one can deny that the roots of all modern music we hear today have their origins in JAZZ. Even today you can still feel the influence of JAZZ and its related types of music: - in advertising - in modern pop music (especially in and) - in films and in television productions - of course also in live concerts Today we went backwards. Based on a CHARTS production by the band that was made in the year, we have traced back the stages of jazz. From their versions of well-known jazz standards, which are even used in commercials (Schweppes, car advertising, etc.), to LIVE bands such as e.g. the saxophonist's band, whose style is clearly influenced by JAZZ, we ended up with the "forefather" of JAZZ, the trumpeter. We have (hopefully) realized that the origin of JAZZ is to be found in the music from which it was mainly adopted. Even if JAZZ music sounds difficult, "mixed up" and "chaotic" for many ears today, it is actually not that complicated after a closer listen !!!!! We heard quite a bit of music, but we should have understood that JAZZ, too, with its many different things, was largely pure, which has always been.




5 THE STYLES OF JAZZ You will hear different music excerpts from the different epochs of JAZZ. Read through the "expert opinions" and assign them to the music excerpts that you think fit. 1. Fast tempo, rapid "lines" - complicated rhythm "confused" 2. Apparently disordered interplay, no continuous "beat" - free melody and harmony formation, 3. Long melody lines, reserved, calm, rather slow 4. The soloist clearly stands out from an electronic one Background, VOLUME 5. "tendril" lines of the main instrument rough, expressive tone 6 .... "plays orchestra" - several trumpets, trombones, saxophones BIG BAND No. MUSICIAN TITLE STYLE YEAR NUMBER


7 THE STYLES OF JAZZ 2 Here are a few pointers as to how the various jazz styles differ musically and which typical characteristics can be recognized by them. NEW ORLEANS JAZZ: - The melody instruments usually present the theme of the piece together, i.e. trumpet, trombone and clarinet improvise together (collective improvisation) - Then follow solos of the individual musicians, with the other instruments in the background, possibly a counter-melody from time to time play. Of course, the double bass and drums always play through. - At the end the theme is played again. SWING - In swing, too, the piece begins with the theme, with an introduction usually at the beginning of the title. - Unlike in New Orleans Jazz, the instruments play together in groups. One speaks of SECTIONS: trombones, trumpets, saxophones usually have their own melody lines, which alternate during the piece, but sometimes also appear together. - The rhythm section plays quarter notes throughout, also called "four-beat". Dance music ?? BEBOP - fast, often crazy tempo sometimes up to 350 bpm - the soloists improvise with different tone scales, often in hectic note chains with very few pauses during their playing. - The rhythm section also plays much "restless", yes "nervous" than in swing - "Music for musicians" - no music to dance to COOL JAZZ - extended, slow playing of the instruments, many pauses, long notes - "cool" relaxed atmosphere, often a bit mysterious (film music ??) - rhythm group plays "sparingly" and little JAZZ ROCK - connection between jazz improvisation and rock accompaniment - "soulful" and "rocky" playing of the solo instruments - rhythm group is currently playing rock rhythms, drummer does not "swing" FREE JAZZ - free Interplay of the musicians, no fixed melodies - spontaneous "reacting to one another" - lines that are hardly recognizable

8 The History of JAZZ Jazz 2 Jazz, music originally created around 1900 by descendants of the southern United States. Since then, jazz has developed primarily in, and later in, its elements originally came from music. Later he also took up elements of other musical cultures. Jazz has its origins in the mixture of different musical traditions of black people who were deported to America as slaves. Essential elements come from West African folk music as well as European folk music. Other forms from African American music were (rhythmic work songs of the slaves) and later the (religious chants) and the blues. History In its beginnings, jazz was played by pianists or solo pianists who played at picnics, weddings, parades, funerals and other events. Usually, at funerals, melodies were played on the way to the cemetery and marches on the way back. New Orleans Jazz At the end of the 19th century, these diverse influences merged into the first style of jazz, which was named New Orleans Jazz after the place where it was created. Here they carried the melody, while the ornate counter-melodies and the rhythmic interjections played. The tuba or double bass placed a bass line under this standard group of three, and the drums provided the rhythm. Spontaneous play and dynamics were more important than musical subtleties, and the improvisation was carried out by several voices of the ensemble (group collective improvisation). Louis Armstrong and his influence The first virtuoso soloist of jazz, the trumpeter and singer Louis Armstrong, was a breathtaking improviser. He changed the image of jazz decisively by placing the soloist at the center. His band, the, demonstrated that jazz improvisation could go far beyond simply embellishing the melody. He also set the standard for all later, not only through the way in which he modified song texts and melodies, but also through what is known as scat singing (the singing of improvised syllables and sounds, often as a rhythmic and expressive imitation of an instrument) . Chicago and New York City The twenties were a time of experimentation and discovery for jazz. During this time of growing industrialization, numerous New Orleans musicians migrated with the blacks from the rural districts of the south to Chicago, where they shaped the music there and contributed to the development of the (white) Chicago style. This style, which has its roots in New Orleans jazz, was in the foreground; the line-up was usually supplemented by a, and usually more tense rhythms and more complicated sound structures were played. Many Chicago musicians eventually moved to New York City, which was another major center of jazz in the 1920s.

9 The era of big bands Also in the twenties, large groups of jazz musicians got together on the model of ballroom dance orchestras, from which the so-called big bands emerged. They ushered in the age of and experienced their heyday in the thirties and early forties. Swing was the first jazz style to achieve major commercial successes (albeit initially almost exclusively as a white style) and made jazz socially acceptable. In swing, the African elements of jazz took a back seat. One of the most important innovations here was a rhythmic change: The two-part rhythm of New Orleans jazz was smoothed and formed into a more flowing four-part rhythm in which all four were evenly emphasized. In addition, short melodic patterns, the so-called riffs, became established, which were played in a question and answer scheme. For this purpose, the orchestra was divided into, each of which played its own riff and gave the individual musicians wide scope for extended solos. The most famous big bands were those of Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman. Forties and post-war years The outstanding jazz musician of the forties was the pioneer of a new style, bebop (also rebop or bop). However, during World War II, many bands suffered from poor economic conditions. This and the change in public taste drove many orchestras to ruin. The decline of the big bands and the rise of bebop, a radically new style, in response to commercialized swing, marked a revolution in the world of jazz. Characteristic for this style were very runs, hectic melody jumps and harmonies. The bebop was initially a music for musicians, i. that is, the artists did not try to cater to the tastes of a wide audience. The driving force behind this movement was Charlie Parker, who could play every imaginable melody on the saxophone in any speed and key. One of the most groundbreaking experiments with classically inspired jazz was the recordings made in 1949/50 by an unusual group of nine around the young trumpeter Miles Davis. The arrangements written by Davis and others established the new style of this music. This music was both soft and extremely complex. Relaxed melodies were accentuated by sparingly used drum accompaniment, and the tone was played in a more restrained, cool manner. Numerous ensembles adopted this style. Cool jazz sad Europe happy slaves complicated fast jazz singers beats HOT SEVEN work songs soloist COUNT BA- SIE saxophone- swing trombone clarinet USA marching bands trumpet successes Charlie Parker instrument groups Spirituals


11 Louis Armstrong Armstrong, Louis Daniel (Satchmo) (), American jazz musician (trumpeter, singer). He is considered the most important musician of the traditional styles in the history of jazz. Armstrong was born on August 4, 1900, the son of a day laborer in New Orleans, Louisiana. Mostly as an autodidact he learned the flugelhorn, clarinet and cornet. He received his first trumpet lessons from the renowned jazz musician King Oliver. Armstrong made his debut as a trumpeter in the band of Kid Ory in New Orleans, became a member of Oliver's Creole Jazz Band in Chicago, and between 1924 and 1925 he played with Fletcher Henderson in New York. He then stayed in Chicago until 1929. Armstrong founded his own band. It was in this year that the first recordings of the Hot Five, which later became very famous, were made. In the following years Armstrong achieved world fame as an outstanding virtuoso and fascinating singer. He played as a soloist in the most famous bands of the time, was an accompanist to such important blues singers as Ella Fitzgerald and Bessie Smith and made many successful tours all over the world. His trumpet playing as well as his singing are praised for the ease of his improvisations and his extraordinary sensitivity. Armstrong is also considered to be the inventor of scat singing. He has appeared in several films, including in Cabin in the Sky (1943), Jam Session (1944), A Song is Born (1947), High Society (1956) and The Five Pennies (1959). His key recordings, which total over over, include Ain t Misbehavin, Struttin With Some Barbecue, Back O Town Blues, I Can t Give You Anything but Love, Tiger Rag, I ve Got a Heart Full of Rhythm, and Wild Man Blues. His autobiography Satchmo, My Life in New Orleans (Satchmo. My Life in New Orleans) was published Armstrong died on July 6, 1971 in New York City.

12 Portrait Louis Armstrong ARTE At the beginning of the century Red Light District New Orleans - Born on August 4, 1901 Mother Prostitute Father Worker grew up with grandmother, slave since 11.


14 D) Bebop (40s) Musicians: Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie Instruments: small line-up with rhythm section (percussion, bass, piano) + soloists (tp, sax) Characteristics of bebop: Melody instruments play quickly and hectically accompanied by rhythm section Tempo: fast to very fast E) Cool Jazz (50s) Musicians: Miles Davis, Modern Jazz Quartet Instruments: small line-up with rhythm section (percussion, bass, piano) + soloists (tp, sax) Characteristics of cool jazz: playing melody instruments calm and restrained Rhythm group accompanies Tempo: slow to medium F) Hard Bop (late 50s) Musicians: Johnny Griffin, Horace Silver, Art Blakey Instruments: small line-up with rhythm group (percussion, bass, piano) + soloists (tp, sax) Characteristics of hard bop: melody instruments play groovy and bluesy melodies can be grasped, not as hectic as in bebop - rhythm section accompanies Tempo: medium to fast G) Free Jazz (mid-60s) Musicians: Sun Ra, Ornette Coleman Instruments: various line-ups with or without a rhythm section Characteristics of free jazz: Melody instruments play free melodies, melodies are often unpredictable, music is composed from the moment - there are no rules Tempo: all tempos, often changing

15 H) Rock Jazz (late 60s, early 70s)) Musicians: Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock Instruments: a wide variety of line-ups with predominantly electrical instruments (keyboards, e-guitars, etc.) Characteristics of rock jazz: Melody instruments often play along in an electronic alienation Effects devices, the rhythm is based on that of rock music. Tempo: medium to fast

16 Blues, Afro-American style of music, mostly with emphasis on vocals, with simple rhythmic accompaniment, consisting of twelve bars in three parts of four bars each in 4/4 rhythm. Originally the music of the slaves abducted from Africa in the American southern states, the blues developed as a secular counterpart to gospel music, which was created around the same time, to one of the most important sources of inspiration for contemporary popular music in North America, especially rock music and jazz. At the beginning of the 20th century, the so-called blues formula developed as the standard form of the blues, a chord and time scheme that is divided into three four-bar parts according to the structure of the blues texts: The text of the blues always has the form of a three-line stanza, the from the first line of verse, the repetition of which consists of a new third line of verse (AAB). The typical harmony of these sections is based on the first (I), fourth (IV) and fifth (V) steps of the scale. The chord progression is often modified without giving up the main harmonies. Each section of text sung is usually followed by an instrumental improvisation, which then results in a call-answer scheme. The blues is based on a special scale (bluestonality) in which the third and seventh levels are intoned neutrally (blue notes). The word blues originally referred to a depressed state of mind, from which the blues feeling is derived. Blues singing, which goes back to various forms of black slave songs, was widespread in the southern United States until the late 19th century. The lyrics are mostly about the singers' personal problems, social grievances and racial discrimination. The forms of the archaic or country blues often differed greatly in text and melody; the singers almost always accompanied themselves on the guitar or harmonica. Singers of this style included names like Blind Lemon Jefferson and Leadbelly (Huddie Ledbetter). The twelve-bar blues form has been traceable since 1912, when the Memphis Blues by W. C. Handy came out. Two years later the legendary Saint Louis Blues appeared. The classic city-blues originated in the twenties and thirties with the songs of Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith and others. Standard forms developed for text and music, and the singers often worked with jazz bands or pianists. The blues compositions arranged for solo piano helped the boogie woogie to break through. The blues is considered to be the forerunner of early jazz, but it also developed independently of it. In the 1940s, singers such as T-Bone Walker and Louis Jordan performed with big bands or ensembles in the line-up of electric guitar, acoustic bass, drums and saxophones. The electronic organ was also increasingly included at this time. After 1950, B. B. King, Ray Charles, and others used improved electric guitars and electronic basses; Brass instruments often replaced the saxophones. Record companies used the terms rhythm and blues and later soul for all forms of music composed in the urban blues style. One of the most important blues guitarists of the second half of the 20th century is John Lee Hooker. Most contemporary blues guitarists have learned from him, including Eric Clapton. The blues also had a great influence on rock music; an independent direction emerged, the so-called blues-rock.


18 Slavery (from Middle Latin sclavus, the name of the Slavic peoples), form of human servitude. Defining characteristics of slavery are: the work and services of slaves are forced; Slaves are considered the property of another person; they are largely subject to the will of their owner. From the earliest times slaves have been understood legally as things; insofar they could inter alia. can be bought and sold, exchanged, given away or deposited as a deposit for debts, without them being able to raise objections. Often slave owners and slaves differed in their ethnic origin. Pronounced racial prejudices were often used to justify slavery. It was very rare for members of one's own ethnic group to be kept as slaves. The Russia of the 17th and 18th centuries was one of the few exceptions.Slavery as such has been handed down from prehistoric times, but it was presumably only institutionalized with the emergence of more differentiated societies. Slaves either came from other peoples and were captured during raids or wars, or from their own society, namely when people sold themselves or family members to pay debts. One could also be sentenced to slavery for violating the law. Ancient Slavery In all ancient societies, slavery was generally accepted and widely viewed as economically and socially indispensable. In the societies of the Mesopotamian region, India and China, slaves were kept as domestic slaves in the home and trade, to work in large buildings or in agriculture. In ancient Egypt, slaves were used en masse to build the royal palaces and tombs. The ancient Hebrews also kept slaves, but their religious laws required them to release slaves from their own people after a certain period of time. In the pre-Columbian societies of America, such as the Aztecs, Inca, and Maya, slaves were used extensively for field work and military service. In the Homeric epics, slavery is the fate that threatened all prisoners of war. The Greek philosophers later saw nothing reprehensible in the institution of slavery, but Aristotle suggested that loyal slaves should be released in gratitude for their loyal service. Usually they were used in the household, in trade and industry, as laborers on country estates and as seamen. House slaves were often on friendly terms with their owners. The helots in Sparta, however, descendants of a group of earlier, defeated inhabitants of the country who had to work on large estates, were treated ruthlessly, mainly because their number far exceeded that of the rulers who were dependent on them. Among the Romans, slavery differed significantly from that of Greece in several ways. Roman slave owners had more power over their slaves, for example they were legally allowed to dispose of their life and death. The wealthy Romans believed that they could not do without their numerous slaves in order to run their households, which were often extremely large. Due to the conquests and the expansion of the empire, the local labor force was no longer sufficient, so that a large number of foreign slaves had to be brought in for field work. Slaves were won primarily through military campaigns; Tens of thousands of prisoners of war were brought to Rome as slaves. People convicted of serious crimes and debtors who sold themselves or family members to pay their debts also became slaves.

19 Slavery in the Middle Ages The elevation of the Christian faith to the state religion of the Roman Empire and its subsequent expansion over Europe and parts of the Middle East tended to improve the situation of slaves, but Christianity did not abolish slavery either. After the fall of the Roman Empire, between the 5th and 10th centuries, at a time when there were numerous invasions by foreign peoples, slavery developed into the generally freer system of serfdom. In Islam, which emerged in the 7th century, slavery was accepted from the start. However, the Prophet Mohammed urged his followers to be good with their slaves, and by and large the slaves of Muslims were treated comparatively well. Mostly they served as house slaves. Slavery in modern times The exploration of the African coasts and the conquest of North and South America by Europeans in the 15th century, as well as the colonization of North America in the three following centuries, paved the way for the slave trade in modern times. Portugal, lacking agricultural workers, was the first modern European nation to meet its labor needs by importing slaves. From 1444 the Portuguese became involved in the slave markets on the West African coast. Spain soon took up the slave trade, but for more than a century Portugal ruled practically the entire African market. Throughout the 15th century, Arab traders sold slaves from Central Africa in markets in Arabia, Iran, and India. Overall, the number of Africans who have fallen victim to the slave trade is estimated at 20 to 100 million. To this day, African societies have suffered from the consequences of this death of a large part of the population. Wars, cultural and economic stagnation or impoverishment form the historical background for many current problems in Africa. In Latin America, the Spanish colonists first enslaved the native population in the 16th century. After they were almost completely wiped out, infected with diseases brought in from Europe, they imported Africans into the Spanish colonies. They believed that they would be better suited to the hard forced labor in the already stressful climate. England had been involved in the slave trade since the second half of the 16th century and fought for the right, previously reserved for Portugal, to supply the Spanish colonies. France, Holland, Denmark and the American colonies themselves followed as competitors, the British South Sea Company was granted the exclusive right to supply the Spanish colonies. In North America, the first African slaves went ashore in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. They were brought to America by private English people and were subject to limited servitude, the legal status of Indian, white and black servants in almost all English colonies of the New World before slavery was introduced. Initially only a few slaves were brought to America, so it did not seem necessary to regulate their legal status in more detail, but then laws were passed in Massachusetts, 1650 in Connecticut and 1661 in Virginia, which specifically concerned slavery; it mostly concerned runaway slaves. In the second half of the 17th century, the plantation system developed in the southern colonies of North America. The number of Africans brought to America as field slaves skyrocketed, and some coastal towns further north became centers of the slave trade. Generally speaking, slaves in the northern colonies of North America were used in home or trade, in the colonies of the New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania regions they were engaged in agriculture, and in the later southern states, where the plantation economy flourished, almost all slaves had to work in the fields. Over time the African slaves became more and more important to the English colonies in America; especially in the south, economy and society were based essentially on the slave economy. Well were

20 also amended the laws affecting them. At the time of the North American War of Independence () they were no longer tied servants, but slaves in the broadest sense of the word. There were special laws that regulated their legal, political and social status vis-à-vis their owners. By law, American slaves even had some rights, for example to support in old age or illness, and to a certain extent also to religious instruction. They also had the right to a legal representative and, in special cases, were even admitted as witnesses. In accordance with customary law, they were often also granted private property, marriage, leisure time and the ability to contract. Whether they could exercise these rights, however, was entirely up to the owner. In fact, even basic human rights have often been disregarded. For example, female slaves were constantly raped by their owners, and families were often torn apart when their members were sold to various other plantations. In principle, the brutal treatment of slaves, such as mutilation, branding, chaining and murder was restricted or prohibited by law. Such atrocities were not only committed frequently until the 19th century, but were usually not punished either. See also transatlantic triangular trade Abolition of slavery Denmark was the first European country to abolish the slave trade in 1792, followed by Great Britain and the United States in 1808. Great Britain used its influence at the Congress of Vienna in 1814 to persuade other countries to give up slavery. Ultimately, almost all European states passed laws that forbade the slave trade, or signed corresponding international treaties, and Great Britain and the United States signed the Ashburton Treaty, in which both countries undertook to each allow a squadron of warships to cross in order to comply with the trade ban check. England and France had initially granted their ships the right to search on both sides and replaced this in 1845 with a cooperation agreement between the two naval forces. The reduced supply of slaves initially led to the slave owners being more careful with their slave stock. The French slaves were given freedom in 1848, while the Dutch The young republics of South America took care of the release of the slaves when they were founded. In Brazil, however, slavery was not abolished until 1888. Slavery in the 20th Century The League of Nations' adoption of anti-slavery acts in 1926 was a great advance. This convention forbade all forms of slavery. The convictions expressed in this convention were reaffirmed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations in 1948, a United Nations committee concerned reported that slavery in the narrower sense could only be spoken of in relation to a few parts of the world However, numerous people still lived in bondage relationships that were comparable to slavery. This included peonage and numerous forms of giving children up for adoption, as well as marrying women without their consent. On the recommendation of the committee, a supplementary convention was passed at a UN conference in 1956, which also outlaws these forms of bondage, which are comparable to slavery. Disputes related to this convention will be heard by the International Court of Justice.

21 SURFTIPS on JAZZ: General search engines: General overview of the history of jazz: EXERCISES: 1. Gather information on the most important styles of jazz. (Link 1 + 3) 2. What are the origins of jazz (think of slavery etc ...) 3. Who were the most important musicians of the respective epoch? (Only write down the three most important ones) 4. What instruments do you play in a jazz band? (Divide them into rhythm and melody groups) 5. When did Louis Armstrong die? What instrument did he play? 6. For which genre of music was Charlie Parker extremely important? SURF TIPS about JAZZ: General search engines: General overview of the history of jazz: EXERCISES: 1. Gather information on the most important styles of jazz. (Link 1 + 3) 2. What are the origins of jazz (think of slavery etc ...) 3. Who were the most important musicians of the respective epoch? (Only write down the three most important ones) 4. Which instruments do you play in a jazz band? (Divide them into rhythm and melody groups) 5. When did Louis Armstrong die? What instrument did he play? 6. For which genre of music was Charlie Parker extremely important?