What is the name of the group of birds
Our bird life - resident birds, migratory birds, part migrants
About the author
Jörg Sauer is a trained primary school teacher and has been teaching at a school for over 20 years. In addition to teaching, he has carried out numerous advanced training courses on the use of new media in the classroom in recent years.
by Jörg Sauer
© Marc Toutain - Fotolia.de
A large number of bird species breed in Germany. In addition, there are those who cross our country in autumn or spring. Based on the behavior of the birds in the cold season is a classification according to Resident or migratory birds possible.
Today's considerations focus on the possibilities for teaching use related to the birds that live with us all year round.
The most important terms
These live all year round in their home area. One therefore often speaks of Annual birdsbecause they have adapted to local living conditions. In the cold season, these species mainly eat seeds, dry fruits and grains, as there are only a few insects and worms left.
This group includes all birds that only spend the warm months with us. That's why they are also called Summer birds. Beginning in late summer until autumn, the birds fly, depending on their species, to the countries of southern Europe or cover long distances far into the African continent. The swallows are considered to be the furthest flyer.
The return of the migratory birds occurs again according to their species into the month of April.
This group includes the birds that do not all migrate to the warmer areas of the south in the winter months. Depending on the supply of food, the birds only cover shorter distances.
Changes in the "pulling behavior"
In one line of the well-known spring song “All birds are already” it says: “Blackbird, thrush, finch and star…”. The poet Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1798 to 1874) expresses his great joy at the arrival of the feathered heralds of spring. He wrote this text: "... around 1835 ..."1. The composer Ernst Heinrich Leopold Richter (1805 to 1876) set it to music and published it two years later.
Some of the birds named in the song no longer belong to the migratory birds because on the one hand the climatic conditions changed and on the other hand the population increased. Blackbirds, thrushes, finches remain in their breeding areas, as they always find enough food in winter. You can also observe that there are always many Starlings don't move away anymore.
Selection of important native resident birds
Blackbird (Turdus merula)
Blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus, Syn.Parus caeruleus)
Great tit (Parus major)
European robin (Erithacus rubecula)
Nuthatch (Sitta europaea)
Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius)
Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis
Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)
House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)
General hints and tips for observing nature
The practical experiences of the children in dealing with nature should lead to the greatest possible “retention effect” for them. This also includes the following basic rulesthat must be adhered to. Here is a selection, which does not claim to be complete:
* do not break off twigs or branches,
* Do not pick plants or parts of them
* do not step on animals (e.g. "unsightly" beetles, ...),
* do not eat any fruit,
* Do not scare animals,
* Do not enter "cultivated" fields or
* Take any rubbish home with you in a separate bag or similar so that it can be disposed of properly.
<>Preliminary considerations from an educational point of view
“I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. "
This old Chinese proverb sums up everything that is important. Everyone knows from their own experience that what I have actively contested is more firmly imprinted on them. We must therefore give our students opportunities to gain practical experience.
In relation to our topic, it is mainly about the development of the subject-specific working methods of looking, observing and describing. The former activities are based on the visual experience. It is important to differentiate between the two in order to create precise tasks for the children.
Features of viewing:
* A pupil turns to an object or animal that is at rest (birds sitting on a branch or on the window sill, looking at originals, using models, inserting sketches or cards, looking at pictures, ...).
* Objective: To determine the most important characteristics of an animal or an object Features of observation:
* includes viewing,
* Children turn to a process, a course
* Relationship of the object / animal to its natural environment,
*…. to an environment modeled on nature,
* a reconstructed or constructed process
The following two steps have proven to be effective:
Looking at an animal or an object
* First look at the entire "object", then only look at individual parts.
* Differentiation between essential and non-essential features
* Summary of key features
* Explanation (s) for the essential characteristics
* Compare results with the task.
Observing a process or the behavior of an animal
* Try to observe the overall process or behavior.
* Divide the process into sections.
* Determine the essential and the insignificant.
* Summarize the essentials.
* Find the cause (s) for observed changes.
* Have the results compared with the task at hand.
The subjects and their possibilities
It is a good start in a small one manageable area the existing birds to observe. This activity should be developed even further in elementary school age. This topic also offers opportunities to integrate different subjects into a project or to use interdisciplinary aspects. The level and scope of the project depend on the age of the children and the current class situation. Not all proposals have to be implemented here.
Science education / biology
* Viewing and observing the birds, among other things.
* Flight behavior
* Behavior on the ground
* Beak shape
* Investigations into the location where the o. G. Stopped birds
* Soil condition,
* Lighting conditions,
Tip: If possible, take photos of the observed birds.
German / working with the computer
* Create a profile
* insert self-made photos if necessary
* Working with nature guides or doing research on the internet to get important information
* Read and invent stories
Creation of a local overview map (e.g. school area map, school garden, site map, ...) where which bird species were found
Comparisons of particular characteristics (e.g. size and weight of birds)
* Build birdhouses
* Make tit rings yourself
* Create collages
* Picture presentations
Following the project, it makes sense to do a "Exhibition about our annual birds" to be carried out in the school building. Parents or grandparents can also be invited when the school is open.
Links & literature
From the large number of nature guides on offer, I would like the very practical one "FSVO nature guide for on the go" recommend.
An exciting experience about the rescue of a small blackbird is in the book: "Adventure blackbird rescue" tells. This book is particularly suitable for younger school children.
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