What does it mean?

Well said to be able to listen, understand and advise. German and communication for commercial professions. Man & nature


1 People & nature Did you know? Great performance, best practice and thanks for your feedback: In everyday professional life, many English words have pushed into German. Denglisch is the technical term for the sloppy mixing of the two languages. Like? for commercial professions Well said Markus Ertl, Doris Hacker, Daniela Kirnbauer, Irene Steiner, Sarah Schiller, Elisabeth Aufreiter can listen, understand and advise


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4 for commercial professions, edition 2018, SBNr without digi4school with digi4school Editor: Janina Glatzeder; Design: Bianca Mannsberger, Daniel Andics; Graphic concept: buero8.com; Art direction: Christian Bretter; Team of authors: Markus Ertl, Doris Hacker, Daniela Kirnbauer, Irene Steiner, Sarah Schiller, Elisabeth Aufreiter This workbook was published by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research on June 15, 2018, reference number BMB-5.025 / 0009-IT / 3/2017 , declared to be suitable for use in teaching by vocational schools in the subject matter. It is a fundamental concern of the MANZ publishing house to promote equal opportunities wherever possible. Women and men are treated equally in the texts and examples in this book. In order not to disturb the flow of reading, the juxtaposition of female and male forms is avoided where necessary. Prohibition of copying. We would like to point out that copying from this book for school use is prohibited 42 Paragraph 6 of the Copyright Law Amendment 2003: The authorization to reproduce for one's own school use does not apply to works whose nature and name are intended for school or teaching use. MANZ Verlag Schulbuch GmbH, Vienna 2018, textbook remuneration / image rights VBK / Vienna This work is protected by copyright. The rights established by this, in particular those of translation, reprinting, removal of images, radio transmission, reproduction by photomechanical or similar means and storage in data processing systems, are retained, even if only partially used. Cover design and graphic concept: buero8, MANZ Verlag Schulbuch, Vienna Printed in the EU, ISBN II This book was printed on chlorine-free bleached paper.

5 Here is your M-BOOK. Printed and digital. This is what your M-BOOK offers you: Mensch & Natur Did you know? Great performance, best practice and thanks for your feedback: In everyday professional life, many English words have pushed into German. Denglisch is the technical term for the sloppy mixing of the two languages. Like? Your M-BOOK is a multimedia textbook. It is available both in print and online. All learning content for your subject Markus Ertl, Doris Hacker, Daniela Kirnbauer, Irene Steiner, Sarah Schiller, Elisabeth Aufreiter Your MANZ textbook is called M-BOOK for commercial professions in clear portions Extensive downloads Interactive exercises Audios to train your listening skills Helpful videos on different topics Activate your M-BOOK! Competency checks for self-assessment of your knowledge Chapter 3: Discussing and moderating Learning unit 2: Arguing Enter your start code here: Ex 3.3 Evaluating arguments a) Which positive arguments does the salesperson bring in example 1 for the new operating system? List them. b) Analyze the argument: How do these sentences affect you? Are you convinced? Which words or formulations may cause you to doubt? What are you missing? Clear, attractive, easily understandable infographics Emotional argumentation To be convincing, you don't just need numbers, data and facts. We also need to feel that something is right. People are guided not only by reason, but also by feeling, and often the gut (gut feeling) seems to make the decision. Example 2: Emotional reasoning Salesperson: Don't worry about converting the operating system, I can reassure you: Most users are surprised at how easy it is to convert. You will also find the new user interface very clear and you will quickly get used to the new operation. You will find your personal start code on the first page of this book. LEARN 2 Arguments 3.4 Compare types of argument Compare the arguments in Examples 1 and 2 and write out the differences. Describe why the second example seems more convincing. Or do you have another opinion? Give reasons for your opinion. Let the arguments speak! The reasoning has to appeal to the mind and emotions to be really convincing. How to argue correctly For a successful argument it is best to mix factual and emotional arguments. In order to convince someone of your opinion, you need good arguments or evidence. With guesses like I don't think you will win anyone over. With good arguments You also need convincing arguments when selling. In the end, the buyer's gut feeling usually decides. How do I argue correctly? If you observe the following points, you can convince your interlocutors with your arguments. Checklist: Convincing arguments 1 Principles of argumentation Addressing the person Your arguments should not only be factual, but also person-oriented. Talk to the person, speak their language, be prepared for them. Explain the usefulness or sense for him / her, preferably with a personal example. An argument has a stronger effect if it is formulated in an understandable manner, if it agrees with the (perceived) reality, if everyone (or at least many) can agree and if it is valid without contradiction, ideally without ifs and buts. Thinking and speaking positively Only those who have a positive attitude are convincing, because body language reveals your true feelings. And only those who speak positively can be convincing, because the voice also conveys information for the interlocutor. Addressing your own feelings Address your own feelings as well. Say what you think of the topic, the product, etc. But stay honest and credible. There are two types of reasoning: factual and emotional. Objective argumentation An objective argumentation is based on facts, figures and data. The more prepared and the more current the data, the better the evidence to support your claim. However, many interviewees remain skeptical and are not really convinced. Mixing arguments Choose a suitable mix of objective (data, numbers, facts) and emotional (addressing the feelings of the other person) arguments, this increases your credibility. Numbers don't lie Numbers, data and facts are therefore a good basis for argumentation. But they cannot always convince on their own. Avoiding arguments errors Killer phrases, generalizations, personal attacks and wrong reasons (see p. 52) have no place in a good argumentation. End the argument with a request or a summary. At the end of your argument, make it clear what you want to achieve with it, e.g. B. Request to choose the product, convince the other of your opinion. Example 1: Factual argumentation seller: The new operating system is clearly structured and works faster than the old one. The changeover is easy, users get used to the new interface or the new controls very quickly. Overview of different conversation situations 51 Communication takes place on different levels: When communicating, one can differentiate between the factual and the relational level. LINK learning units for every conversation situation Here you will find detailed information on the various conversation situations. Different conversation situations have different challenges. B. differently than with a customer on the phone. Parallel communication If communication goes well on both levels, that is, the content is clear and the feelings are positive, we speak of parallel communication. Unfortunately, it is not always the rule. Conversations with supervisors Location: Supervisor's office, meeting room Participants: Supervisors and employees Special features of the conversation situation: asymmetrical communication (conversation partners are not on the same level in the hierarchy) Employee interview Location: meeting room Participants: superiors / r and employees Special features of the conversation situation: usually once a year, regular process, meeting of target agreements. For example, if factual information is interpreted emotionally or relationships are assessed on the basis of factual information, we speak of cross-communication. There are misunderstandings and misinterpretations. Conflicts usually arise on the relationship level. So, especially in the professional environment, make sure to stay factual with your messages and emphasize the positive side on the relationship level. Job interview Location: HR office, meeting room Participants: HR manager and applicant Special features of the interview situation: Interview partner and location unknown, resembles an examination situation Overview of different interview situations Crossed communication Factual level Relationship level id_5 Ex 1.10 Influence of relationships on communication Positions You z. For example, suppose you bought a new sweater. Does it make a difference who says to you What a nice / cool sweater !? How do you rate the statement in each case? Discuss it with a partner. a) the salesperson at the checkout of the fashion store b) the best friend c) the old-fashioned great-aunt d) the classmate whose fashion style you like. Ü 1.11 Iceberg model of communication Look at the graphic for the iceberg model of communication and think about it second, which is why conflicts arise more often on the relational than on the factual level. Customer advisory meeting Factual level Location: Office, business premises Participants: Customer and employees Special features of the discussion situation: Discussion goal: Conclusion of a contract or sale of the goods, usually no preparation for the conversation possible, the opposite number is unknown Small talk is usually conducted with unknown people who The usual form of address is therefore the polite you. But if you happen to meet someone you know on the street, you use the familiar form of address you. LINK You or you? You can read more about the salutation pronouns here. on the surface, consciously id_1 Goals Tasks Viewpoints Small talk a casual conversation: Small talk is a short conversation that is often used to make new contacts. beneath the surface, unconsciously How do you start a conversation? Smile, make eye contact, and say hello to the person. When approaching a group, you should follow a sequence of greetings: superiors in front of colleagues, older people in front of young people, women in front of men. Introduce yourself or have someone you know present introduce you. Location: office, call center, on the go Participants: caller and employee Special features of the conversation situation: normally no visual contact, no body language signals Interests Needs Feelings Values ​​Conflict Goals Tasks Viewpoints Interests Needs Feelings Values ​​Relationship level What to talk about? After the performance, you can ask questions about the trivial and the obvious, or you can start the conversation yourself. Good topics (positive, irrelevant) the weather the current situation or the place where you are leisure activities (sport etc.), hobbies education and profession religion politics money matters and salary illnesses and family tragedies current business topics and secrets vacation bad talking About others, gossip and gossip Eating and drinking Exercise 2.14 Discussions with customers Form teams of two. Imagine that you are a host and receive business customers you do not yet know. Together, draw up a plan on how you can make these new business customers feel particularly comfortable with you. You can also use the information you received in the subject Applied Business Studies. 10 Bad topics (potential for conflict, too extensive) nice family experiences, children etc. personal convictions etc. The topics in the right column are not suitable for small talk, as they cannot be dealt with in a short conversation that can take 30 seconds or five minutes and want. Some of the issues can even give rise to serious conflict, e.g. B. Politics. When it comes to small talk, it is also important to remain honest and credible. How do you get out of small talk? A look at the clock, a searching look into the room or something similar. and a positive farewell round off the conversation. Examples are: I was very happy to meet you, but now I have to say goodbye. Goodbye. Or Ah, over there I see Frau Müller, I really wanted to talk to her. May I say goodbye? Goodbye and have a nice evening E 2.15 Find common ground Discuss with a partner what all the situations shown above have in common. Write down your results. Ü 2.4 Making small talk In the situation described in Ü 2.3 (p. 27), two people have a short small talk. Join the conversation and end it again. Then get feedback from classmates. We build the future. We live in the now. We learn with MANZ III

6 1-2-3 for learning success Your M-BOOK is simple and clear. Three phases lead you to learning success. LEARNING Knowledge & Understanding PRACTICE Trying & Training CAN Apply & Network 1 In the first LEARNING phase, your M-BOOK explains the learning content to you. There are clear examples and tasks to accompany the explanations. So you can always do something with the learning content yourself. You learn step by step and build up your knowledge easily and safely. 2 In the second EXERCISE phase, your M-BOOK offers you additional exercises. Here you can train and try out whether you have already mastered what you have learned. If it doesn't work out so well, just scroll back to the LEARNING phase and look at the explanations again. 3 In the third phase, you CAN show what you can do. Now it is a matter of applying what you have learned correctly. There are summarizing tasks and role plays here. At the end you will find a competence check so that you can assess for yourself where you are already really good and what you may have to repeat and practice after all. We build the future. We live in the now. We learn with MANZ. IV

7Presentations keep the spotlight and stage fright This is how your presentation will be a success 79 PRACTICE 79 CAN V

8 Chapter 5 Reading and Understanding 82 LEARNING 1 What Can You Read? 2 How can you read? How reading works Reading techniques 3 Selecting and summarizing content Creating an excerpt Write summaries 4 Understanding factual and technical texts Understanding technical and foreign words Reading graphics and diagrams 5 Leisure reading How can you classify literature? Poetry Epic Drama Spreading the desire to read 115 PRACTICE 115 ABILITY Chapter 6 Writing texts 126 LEARNING 1 Preparation for writing 2 Useful short texts Writing a memo for a conversation 3 Writing minutes Overview of the types of minutes Writing a protocol What happens to the finished protocol? 4 Write a report Reporting on an event Write a standardized report 5 Creative writing Writing is fun Stories that life writes Writing artfully 6 Revising texts How do I go about revising the text? What do I have to pay attention to when revising the text? Chapter 7 vocational matriculation examination or apprenticeship with Matura? 158 LEARNING 1 Information on the vocational maturity examination and apprenticeships with matura Structure of the vocational maturity examination How can you prepare for the vocational maturity examination? Meine Berufsreifeprüfung 2 The German sub-examination Type of tasks Example of an examination task Chapter 8 Spelling practice 166 LEARNING 1 Tips and tricks for spelling 10 important spelling rules Word families 2 Large or small? Which words are capitalized? When do you capitalize verbs and adjectives? Turns Times 3 Separately or together? Compositions Rules for spelling separate and aggregated 4 s-spelling From pronunciation to spelling -st, -sst or -st? That or that? 5 subtleties of the German language Third and fourth cases Punctuation marks can save lives 191 PRACTICE 192 CAN Appendix 199 Index 200 Glossary 200 Photo credits 152 PRACTICE 153 CAN VI

9 1 Communication begins with listening This is what this chapter is all about: Listening is an amazing skill. The sound waves always somehow come to the ear, but only the willingness to process information turns hearing into listening. And listening is the key to a successful conversation. You will learn this in the following learning units: 1 How can I avoid misunderstandings and filter information through active listening? 2 How versatile is a message really? 3 What does it mean that the body also speaks, and how can I use it in a targeted manner? Listening is more than just hearing Say a short sentence to each other. Was he understood? Repeat the exercise with a new set. This time, while listening, count backwards from 100 in steps of three. Could you still understand the sentence? Activate your M-BOOK online! Use this chapter with additional tasks, interactive exercises, videos, audios, downloads and digital flashcards. wirlernenmitmanz.at 1

10 1 LEARNING 1 Listening to avoid misunderstandings Thank you for listening, says your best friend. Weren't you listening to me? The supervisor asks angrily. Proper listening is not only polite, it also avoids misunderstandings. From hearing to listening If you listen instead of just hear, you not only perceive sounds, but also process them in a meaningful and coherent way. You are actually trying to understand what the person you are speaking to is trying to say. It's about the content, not just the wording. Do not miss anything Only those who listen attentively can participate in the conversation. Image not included in the for legal reasons Listening like Momo Momo can listen so well to Michael Ende's novel that she coaxes her secret from the dangerous time thieves and thus saves people. Michael Ende: Momo What little Momo could do like no one else was: listening. This is nothing special, some readers will say, everyone can listen. But this is a mistake. Very few people can really listen. And the way Momo knew how to listen, it was completely unique. Momo was so listening that stupid people suddenly had very clever thoughts. Not because she said something or asked what gave the other person such thoughts, no, she just sat there and Quelle: Ende, Michael: Momo. Stuttgart: 1973, S just listened, with all the attention and all the sympathy. As she did so, she looked at the other with her large, dark eyes, and the person in question felt that thoughts suddenly arise in him that he would never have known were inside him. She could listen so closely that perplexed and indecisive people suddenly knew exactly what they wanted. Or that shy people suddenly felt free and courageous. [] So Momo could listen. 2

11 Chapter 1: Communication begins with listening Lesson 1: Listening prevents misunderstandings 1.1 Listening like Momo? a) Read the text Listen like Momo on p. 2. Do you know the story? What is so special about Momo's method of listening? Discuss this with your colleagues. b) Together, create a list of dos and don ts on the topic of listening. Under what circumstances can you listen well or badly yourself? What annoys you as a narrator about the behavior of the person you are speaking to? What kind of feedback help you? Proper listening: Active listening is more than just listening. If you observe the following points, you will become the perfect listener: Checklist: active listening Avoiding disruptive factors Too many noises are distracting. Turn off your smartphone, turn off other sources of noise and choose a quiet environment. Paying full attention to the other person When you want to listen, you cannot do more than one thing at the same time. H. do not play on your mobile phone, watch TV, etc. Interrupt what you are doing or ask for a moment to stop what you are doing. Signaling attention using body language Turn your upper body towards the person you are speaking to, seek eye contact, but do not stare. Use your sitting posture and open gestures to signal that you are open and receptive to the conversation. Encourage people to continue speaking through feedback. Nod, also show interest through verbal feedback, e.g. B. Hmm, yes I see. Ask if anything is unclear or if you want to know something more precisely. If necessary, repeat the last statement in your own words (= paraphrase). Ensure understanding Ask comprehension questions and summarize the most important statements in your own words. Give the interlocutor time Sometimes advice is not the aim of the conversation. It is often important and good that you can talk things off your mind and someone just listens. Some questions that can help you in active listening: Do I understand you correctly? May I summarize briefly :? May I repeat briefly? W questions: When? Where? Who? How? (But please be careful not to interrogate your counterpart.) Brave questions Do I understand you correctly? in the right place, misunderstandings cannot arise in the first place and the conversation stays going. 3rd

12 These statements show interest and appreciation and encourage your counterpart to continue speaking: I understand. Ms. XY said that may I come back to, I didn't quite understand. Yes, I can imagine. Really? I did not know that! That sounds very interesting! I'm listening to you, please keep talking. Can you please explain this to me in more detail, Ex. 1.2 Are Katrin and Alen open to the conversation? a) Katrin and Alen recently moved in together. Here you can see different excerpts from the everyday life of the two. Assess in which of the situations shown there is willingness to talk. Check off the pictures where listening is likely to work well. Image not included in the for legal reasons b) You are sure to have found good and bad conversation situations. Which criteria influenced your decision? Talk about it in pairs. c) Describe how Katrin and Alen show their willingness to listen or their unwillingness to listen. Gather your insights on the board. Ex. 1.3 How does active listening work? Watch the video in the M-BOOK online. Analyze how the young man shows his attention or what signals of active listening he uses. LINK How does active listening work? Video: How a soft handshake leads to success id_6 2 Filtering information You listened, you summarized, you repeated in your own words. You are well on the way to separating the really important information from the unimportant. Your attention is precious and sometimes it may only be available to a limited extent - focus on the essentials. focus on something, focus on a detail 4

13 Chapter 1: Communication Starts with Listening Unit 1: Listening to Avoid Misunderstandings When listening to someone, also pay attention to whether a linguistic filter is over what is being said, as these filters lead to incomplete statements or statements that deviate from the facts. Linguistic filters are: Stress: The meaning of a sentence can be changed by different stress. Omission: This means reducing the information; B. Aspects of the statement. Example: The new cell phone is much better. (To what extent is it better? Better than what?) Generalization: Individual pieces of information are generalized, i.e. presented as a rule. Example: Austrians want a change. (Really all Austrians? Which changes do they want exactly? Do they all want the same change?) Distortion: Facts are interpreted through assumptions, one's own opinion, the need for attention and mind reading. Example: Tobias has finally understood that Mirja is only taking advantage of him. I've always known that. (To what extent did Tobias feel exploited? Did Mirja actually do that?) Avoid selling speculation as facts yourself. If you want to convey assumptions or your opinion, do so by saying, I accept; I believe that ; I am of the opinion that. Filtering information: Gathering essential information is a key competency, both professionally and privately. H. a very important skill. If you can filter information, you save time and nerves. Here's how it works: Checklist: Filtering information Pay attention to accentuations and other linguistic filters Listen carefully to identify incorrect information. Prick up your ears! Prick up your ears is a phrase for attentive listening. In this way one can also recognize linguistic filters such as speculations, distortions, omissions. Speculation, the assertion based on mere assumptions Asking for brief, essential information If necessary, politely but firmly ask your counterpart to get to the essentials. Help him / her get back to a point by consciously leading him / her back to it. Writing down important information Taking notes is a simple and effective way to record essential information. Questions and information check comprehension questions, questions about unfamiliar words, a request for a more detailed explanation or the source from which the information was obtained, so that you can ensure that you have understood everything correctly. Check and question what you hear! By the way, did you know that you can also hear the correct spelling of a word if you try to filter this information? Especially with the s-spelling, this is easy with a little practice. You can find out more about this on p. 180 f. 5

14 3 Ü 1.4 The subjective filter Select a current newspaper report in the class. 1. Form a team of two: One of you reads the newspaper report, the other tries to filter out the most important information and notes it down. 2. Compare the results of the teams with each other. Ex. 1.5 The emphasis is on 1. Read the following sentences out loud and emphasize the words / parts of words in bold. a) Have you heard? Metin has bought a new Audi. b) have you heard? Metin bought a new Audi. c) Have you heard? Metin has bought a new Audi. d) Have you heard? Metin bought a new Audi. e) Have you heard? Metin bought a new Audi. f) Have you heard? Metin has bought a new Audi. 2. In small groups, discuss how the different emphasis changes the key information. Ü 1.6 Finding core information Listen to the audio examples in the M-BOOK online and filter out the core information. To do this, edit the worksheet in the M-BOOK online. Dealing with foreign words and technical terms You never stop learning in your mother tongue. Perhaps at the beginning you also had difficulties with certain technical terms in your teaching company, which have now become part of your daily language as a matter of course. Has it ever happened to you that you have used these technical terms in relation to people outside the industry and that you did not understand them? We do not all have the same vocabulary depending on who you are talking to, so you should adapt your language so that you are understood and do not appear aloof. If you do not understand a word yourself, the best thing to do is to look it up in a dictionary so that you can gradually expand your vocabulary. Looking up foreign words in the dictionary is often easier said than done: Since they often come from languages ​​that are spoken completely differently from the German language, the difference between the spelling and the pronunciation is very large. On the next page you will find some tips on how to find foreign words in the dictionary after their pronunciation. LINK One sentence many statements Listen to how the meaning of a sentence can change due to the stress. id_8 Find LINK core information id_3 Listen to the audio samples. id_2 Then edit the worksheet which you can download here. id_1 configuration required If it is unclear what needs to be done and how, a foreign word can quickly become a real problem. 6th

15 Chapter 1: Communication begins with listening Unit 1: Listening prevents misunderstandings Tips for searching for foreign words in the (online) dictionary: What you cannot find under TSCH is usually classified under C or J, e.g. B. Cheep under Chip, Cheep under Jeep. What you cannot find under SCH is usually classified under J, G or CH, schurnalist under journalist, schurnalist under genius, charming under charming. What cannot be found under K is usually classified under C or Q, e.g. B. kollasch under collage, kockpitt under cockpit, kwiss under quiz. What cannot be found under W is usually classified under V, e.g. B. Waselin (e) under Vaseline, welur under Velor. What cannot be found under J is usually classified under Y, e.g. B. jak under yak, jard under yard. LINK Using a dictionary Find out how to use a dictionary effectively. id_5 Exercise 1.7 Heterogeneous terms a) Find out what the title of this exercise means using an online dictionary. b) Read the following statements with foreign words aloud to each other. Even a feathered, visually incapable, but flightless livestock can come into possession of unspecified seeds. Meaning: There is a saying behind it, can you recognize it? Ballistic experiments with crystalline H 2 O on the area of ​​an educational institution are subject to strict prohibition! Meaning: Throwing snowballs in the school yard is prohibited! In my psychological constitution, an absolute dominance of positive effects manifests itself for an unstable existing individuality of your person. Meaning: I love you! c) Ask about individual foreign words (e.g. optical perception) that you do not know or look them up in a dictionary. d) How do the statements affect you? What do you think B. from the declaration of love? Is that romantic? Discuss with your learning partners. Exercise 1.8 Do we understand one another? 1. Listen to the audio examples in the M-BOOK online. Did you understand what the individual audio samples were about? Summarize the most important information in one sentence. Is there an example that you understood particularly well? If so, try to explain how this differs from the rest of the examples. 2. Together with a partner, create a short specialist text on a typical situation in your company and three questions about it. Make sure you use as many technical terms as possible in the text. Present your text to the class and then let your classmates answer the questions. 3. Now exchange your text with that of another team. Translate the other team's text into everyday language that is easy to understand. Smart books If you don't know foreign words and technical terms, a quick look at the (online) dictionary will help. That ensures understanding. LINK Do we understand each other? Here you will find the audio examples for Ü 1.8. id_4 7

16 1 LEARNING 2 The diversity of news News often says more than a mere factual message. Depending on how the recipient receives the message, the reaction is very different. This can affect the conversation or even the whole relationship. Relationships, Moods, Expectations, and Other Hurdles There are so many factors that can lead to misunderstandings that it's almost a miracle that we understand each other. Of course, in every conversation you can try to completely ignore feelings and remain objective. But people are social beings and as such try to build relationships and these relationships always resonate with communication. O 1.9 Elena and the message a) Elena receives the following message from her boyfriend: I'll come later. Can you understand their reactions (see p. 9)? Find a term to describe Elena's feelings in each situation. Talking together, laughing together If you get along well, the (correct) understanding also works when communicating. Factor that something that has certain effects in a certain context; Circumstance 8

17 Chapter 1: Communication Starts with Listening Unit 2: The Versatility of Messages Elena's Reactions You can't be serious now! Now he's late again! Ah go. Can't he be on time for once ?! Why isn't he coming? Does he not like me anymore? He was already on the way ?! b) Discuss in small groups what the major disadvantage of a text message is. Think about how the sender can color text messages, i.e. direct the factual information in a certain direction so that the recipient can understand it more easily. A little tip: You are sure to use these options frequently yourself. ;-) c) Make up an example for a similar short message together and explain how it can lead to different reactions.Different levels of communication There are two main levels of communication: the factual level (this is where information is transported) and the relationship level (this is where feelings come into play). Example: Interpretation on different levels of communication. For example, suppose you are a little late for an appointment and your waiting friend asks you: Why are you so late? Cool! Then I can finish watching the episode of my favorite series. Interpretation at the factual level My friend wants to know why I was late, what stopped me. à Reaction: I was stuck in a traffic jam, that's why I didn't make it earlier. Interpretation on the relationship level As soon as I am five minutes late, I get reproaches for it. I can never do anything right! à Reaction: Do you always have to reproach me right away if I'm only 5 minutes late! It's not my fault if I get stuck in the stupid traffic jam! Now I don't feel like doing anything anymore. Which interpretation is correct cannot be decided when asking the question. If the girlfriend had asked you with a reproachful tone of voice or had phrased the question like this, Why are you coming so late again? The reproach would be unequivocal on the relationship level. 9

18 Communication takes place on different levels: When communicating, one can differentiate between the factual and the relational level. Parallel communication Crossed communication Factual level Factual level Relationship level Relationship level If communication goes well on both levels, that is, the subject matter is clear and the feelings are positive, one speaks of parallel communication. Unfortunately, it is not always the rule. If the levels are confused, e.g. For example, if factual information is interpreted emotionally or relationships are assessed on the basis of factual information, we speak of cross-communication. There are misunderstandings and misinterpretations. Conflicts usually arise on the relationship level. So, especially in the professional environment, make sure to stay factual with your messages and emphasize the positive side on the relationship level. Exercise 1.10 Influence of relationships on communication For example, suppose you bought a new sweater. Does it make a difference who says to you What a nice / cool sweater !? How do you rate the statement in each case? Discuss it with a partner. a) the salesperson at the checkout of the fashion store b) the best friend c) the old-fashioned great-aunt d) the classmate whose fashion style you like. Ü 1.11 Iceberg model of communication Look at the graphic for the iceberg model of communication and think about it second, which is why conflicts arise more often on the relational than on the factual level. Factual level on the surface, conscious goals tasks viewpoints conflict goals tasks viewpoints below the surface, unconsciously interests needs feelings values ​​interests needs feelings values ​​relationship level 10

19 Chapter 1: Communication begins with listening Lesson 2: The versatility of messages Ex 1.12 Relationship level of a message In the following example sentences cross out any phrases or words that make a negative impression on the relationship level. Underline phrases or words that emphasize the positive side. Then reformulate all sentences so that they are purely factual information. We are sure to find a solution for that! The amount must be transferred within one week. Under no circumstances can we accept the price increase. Please tell your colleague that I am unfortunately unable to attend tomorrow. The 4 sides of a message If you take a closer look at messages, you can see that they have even more sides than the factual level and the relationship level. The 4-Ears Model: Cause, Relationship, Self-Revelation, and Appeal You can also divide a message into four categories: Cause, Relationship, Self-Revelation, and Appeal. The model for this, the so-called 4-ear model, comes from Friedemann Schulz von Thun (psychologist and communication scientist) and this is what it looks like: Self-revelation ear What does he say about himself? What kind of one is that? The message always reveals something about the speaker. B. Show off their expertise or share it with me so I can learn something? Relationship ear What does the other think of me? How does he talk? Here it becomes clear how the interlocutors relate to one another, whether they are e.g. B. like, respect or not. Sachohr What is the matter? How is it to be understood? The term thing is to be understood as the purely factual word value without taking into account feelings and relationships. Appeal ear What should I do, think, feel? Many messages contain a request to do something. Example: Loriot The breakfast egg Hermann says: Berta, the egg is hard! Self-revelation: I don't like hard-boiled eggs! I'm angry because I was looking forward to my breakfast egg so much. Relationship: Berta, you know me and how I like my breakfast egg. (Maybe also: It's your job as a housewife to cook and do it the way I want it. Or: You can't cook eggs the way I like them.) Thing: The egg is hard-boiled. (It's not soft or raw) Appeal: Make me a soft-boiled egg. Image not included in the for legal reasons LINK Loriot: Das Frühstücksei Video from 1977 id_1 Loriot a master of misunderstanding Many of Loriot's stories, drawings and sketches revolve around scenes from everyday life. The comedy usually results from unsuccessful communication. 11

20 Ü 1.13 The deadline a) Kathi receives the following message from a colleague: Today is the deadline for the report. Assign reactions (right) from Kathi to the interpretations (left). Tip: There are two reactions to one interpretation. If Kathi understands purely factually, then she will be happy that her colleague is a true friend and reminds her of it. If Kathi understands emotionally, then she will take note of this information. If Kathi understands a request, then if Kathi understands that it is not about her or the order, but about the speaker, then b) Now assign the terms factual level, relationship level, appeal and self-revelation to the situations listed in a). c) In partner work, assess the statement on the submission deadline (see a) in the following situations: 1 while you are giving a group of important customers a tour of the company premises 2 while you have finally sat down with a cup of coffee after a strenuous morning have worked through 3 while you are finishing the said report without any time pressure, you will think that your colleague is nervous because the report is not finished and she needs it. she will think that the colleague is saying that she finished her report a long time ago. she'll finish the report in a moment. LINK 2 How communication works How communication works Read what else about How you found out that there are numerous ways in which you can misunderstand communication. In order for your communication to succeed, keep in mind the following can help. id_3 points. This is how your communication works: Avoid misunderstandings and consciously give conversations a positive twist. Checklist: Basics for successful communication Avoid negative thoughts, expectations and attitudes Filter out the factual information and avoid negative influences on the relationship level. Negative formulations avoid words such as kindness, cheek or even curses and insults in conversations inevitably lead to a deterioration in the relationship and thus in communication. Use positive formulations. B. better than a sure not. Please and thank you also have a positive effect. Put in the other person's position Don't be too quick to interpret something into statements. Show understanding for the situation of the other person. 12

21 1 LEARNING 3 The body speaks too Are you aware that you are always communicating, even when you are not saying or doing anything? Your body reveals what is going on inside you sometimes even more than you would like. But you can also use body language in a targeted manner. Flirting Even before the first word, we talk to each other when we come into contact. Even when flirting z. For example, body language is crucially involved: we consciously or unconsciously send out clear signals from playing with our hair to the first eye contact. These signals, and body language in general, are understood in all cultures. Message without words Although nothing was said, the message can be understood through body language. Flirting means getting closer Even today, the first step, speaking, often starts with the man. However, the woman often speaks first through body language. 13th

22 Flirting is about reducing distance and creating closeness. Depending on whether our unconscious alarm system goes off or not, the approach will be successful, because not everyone is allowed to come too close to us. Some people would rather be kept at a distance. LINK distance zones Every person is a restricted area - read here how that is meant. id_3 Ex 1.14 Dos and Don ts when flirting Watch the two videos by Stefan Verra in the M-BOOK online and talk in groups about why they are dos and don ts and whether you agree with them. LINK Dos and Don ts when flirting Watch the videos. id_2 2 Mimic Mimic describes the facial expression. Of the 26 facial muscles, eight are essentially responsible for facial expressions. Even small changes in facial expression can have a big impact (see e.g. the sequence of images on p. 9). The eyes have a special meaning. It is not for nothing that they are often referred to as windows or mirrors of the soul. The eyes offer many possibilities of expression, e.g. B. open wide (shock, amazement), wink (irony, pleasure), roll your eyes (annoyed), pinch (anger, smile) etc. They reveal a lot about the thoughts and feelings of the other person, which is why eye contact during a conversation is very important important is. As you know, eye contact also signals attentive listening. You can also consciously use your body language and facial expressions to reinforce your words: For example, by using the sentence We can do it for sure! Smile friendly and briefly nod, reinforce your statement twice. The facial expressions must not appear fake. Exercise 1.15 Reading faces 1. Take turns choosing one of the following moods and try to represent it with your facial expression. Your learning partner should guess what mood it is: 1 apathetic, disinterested 6 bored, annoyed 2 panicked, horrified 7 angry, accusing 3 positively surprised, happy 8 happy, excited 4 negatively surprised, disappointed 9 combative, dogged 5 tired, exhausted 10 curious, friendly 2. Then talk about the facial expressions you have read in order to guess the mood and choose the five that seem most important to you. Justify your choice. Digital facial expressions Thanks to the emojis, facial signals can also be used in text messages. Since they have to make do with a few lines and symbols, they are often misinterpreted. LINK Emojis Many emojis actually mean something different than you think. Read the article on it. id_1 Ü 1.16 Smile please! 1. Imagine you have just been treated unfairly, an angry customer complained to you and blamed you personally for a deficiency. Put yourself emotionally in this situation: You are angry, maybe you are ashamed and offended that the customer has just yelled at you like that. Now smile at the person sitting next to you: How does your smile work? How do you feel about it yourself? 14th

23 Chapter 1: Communication begins with listening Unit 3: The body speaks too 2. Now imagine that you had a great day, a satisfied customer praised you and your supervisor noticed that too. Your friend has just written to you saying that he / she has something very special planned for you tonight. You are really looking forward to it. Put yourself emotionally in this situation and smile at the person sitting next to you: How does your smile work? How do you feel about it yourself? 3. Talk about your experiences and try to find out together how a real smile differs from a fake smile. 3 Gesture Gesture is primarily the sum of hand and arm signals, i.e. gestures that can replace words and messages. They are often used in conversations or speeches to emphasize or explain the content of a statement. Speaking gestures Gestures that imitate things or processes are understood everywhere. Even abstract, i.e. non-representational things can be expressed with gestures, e.g. B. Thumbs up for Well Done !. However, some of these gestures have different meanings in different cultural areas. B. in Austria excellent, but in southern European countries it is a serious insult. Technical gestures In some professional groups (e.g. stockbrokers, professional athletes, crane operators, divers, etc.) there are professional gestures that enable communication without words, both over long distances and e.g. B. under water. Technical gestures must be clear so that communication works. If z. B. the pilot does not understand the flight controller, it can lead to serious personal injury and property damage. LINK Gestures intercultural Read up on the meaning of popular European gestures in other cultural areas. id_7 Mechanical gestures Some gestures occur largely unconsciously, e.g. B. scratching, yawning or rubbing your eyes. Many of these gestures have their origin in protective mechanisms in the body, such as B. when frightened, put your hands in front of your face to protect it. Make yourself aware of these gestures so that you can control them in public. Sign language Sign language is a language developed for deaf people that consists of finger and hand signals. Together with speaking facial expressions, it enables well-functioning (almost) silent communication. By the way, there are around 140 different sign languages ​​worldwide. LINK finger alphabet in sign language Each letter has its own gesture. id_6 15

24 Exercise 1.17 Interpreting gestures In partner work, collect hand and arm gestures that can replace a verbal message. Write in key words what this gesture means. Tip: You can also take photos of each other and create a poster for it. Exercise 1.18 Emphasis with gestures Try to emphasize the bold sections in the following sentences with gestures. Talk to one another about whether or not you have chosen the same gestures. a) We will go through the program point by point. b) I can assure you that we would all have acted like this. c) Nobody can say that he can do everything. d) Yesterday's appointment was a total mess. e) Well, I'm absolutely against it. Ü 1.19 Reading gestures Write next to the pictures what you think the shown gestures mean. Compare your results in the group. Interpret gestures This is what your poster could look like. 4 Posture Our posture can reveal a lot about our attitude or mood. If you consciously pay attention to this with your interlocutor, you will receive a lot of additional information. The position of the head alone, for example, can be interpreted in many ways: bowed head (depression, insecurity), bowing the head (fear), head held high (self-confidence, arrogance) etc. arrogance, arrogance, arrogance 16

25 Chapter 1: Communication begins with listening Lesson 3: The body speaks too Control yourself consciously how you stand, walk or sit, because a straight, upright posture not only makes you appear sincere and self-confident in conversation, it really is This is also important for you, as you prevent bad posture in this way. Healthy body language can be trained and used consciously. It can also be used to manipulate people. Most nen z. B. are trained in the conscious use of body language. Therefore, always check politicians whether the overall picture fits together. Because only in combination with language, voice pitch, volume, posture, facial expressions and gestures can the message be interpreted correctly. Ü 1.20 Look how it sits! Assign the following terms to the pictures using the numbers: 1 relaxed / attentive 2 insecure / tense 3 aggressive / attentive 4 self-confident / confident of victory 5 interested / thoughtful 6 disinterested / bored Knowing your body Sports such as dancing or martial arts create a new body awareness. Only those who are aware of their body can consciously communicate with it. Ü 1.21 Standing is not the same as standing! Go together in partner work and take turns taking turns according to the following instructions.Talk about how you feel in the respective posture and how you affect the other person. Choose the best posture (s) together: Which posture was the most comfortable for you? Which posture worked best? 1. Let loose, the back is soft and round. Drop your shoulders and drop your arms. Your head is heavy and tilts forward. You look at the floor. 2. Give your body a little tension, slightly straightening your back, shoulders and neck. Imagine that you have a small loop on your head that easily hangs your head. This makes your head light and your posture straight. LINK Interactive Exercise E 1.20 Look how it sits! id_5 17

26 O 1.23 O 1.24 O 1.25 O 1.26 O 1.27 O 1.28 O Put your hands on your hips, spread out and tense your body. Push your head forward slightly and stand with your legs apart. 4. Stand with your feet crossed. One leg blocks the other. Now cross your arms in front of your stomach so that you form a figure eight with your arms and hands. The wrists are crossed and the fingers should be crossed. For this to work, you have to make yourself very narrow and keep your shoulders forward. Look down to the left. Tip: You can also do the exercise at home in front of the mirror. The body also speaks: You cannot not not communicate! (Paul Watzlawick, Austrian-American communication scientist) Body language, regardless of whether it is used consciously or unconsciously, has a great influence on communication: On the one hand, reading body language helps you to understand faster and better what the other person is trying to convey to you . On the other hand, you can reinforce your statements yourself by consciously using body language and thus steer a conversation more easily in the direction you want. Checklist: Mastering body language Interpreting the sum of the verbal (linguistic) and non-verbal (body language) signals Consider posture, facial expressions and gestures as well as voice, volume and choice of words as an overall picture. Pay attention to your own body language Think positively if you want to have a positive effect. Your thinking affects your muscles (= your posture). But it also works the other way around, a smile z. B. has a positive effect on mood. Caution when assessing body language Be aware that body language can be interpreted, but that this interpretation is subjective (influenced by personal feelings) and does not have to be correct. Also, keep in mind that body language can be trained. Theoretically, you could also want to manipulate your counterpart. Controlling mechanical gestures Be aware of your mechanical gestures (scratching your ears, stretching limbs, rubbing the tip of your nose, etc.) and avoid them in public. You could come across as impolite or distract the other person from what is being said. Different countries, different customs Remember that some gestures may be considered impolite or even offensive in other cultures. If necessary, find out what is considered polite and rude in each country. PRACTICE You can find more exercises and role-plays on the subject of listening and body language in the M-BOOK online. LINK Ü 1.22 Ü 1.29 Here you will find further exercises for chapter 1. id_4 18