Can delusions contradict each other

Hallucinations, hallucinations and delusions

Our senses determine what we perceive as reality. It is all the more disturbing when one's own sensory impressions differ from those of others. That happens at about Hallucinations. Then sensory impressions are experienced that are not based on real external stimuli. At aIllusion a real sensory impression is misinterpreted, e.g. B. a bush perceived in the dark as a crouching figure. A Delusion in turn, it is a pathological, uncorrectable conviction that those affected cling to even when it contradicts the judgment of others and contradicts logic, e.g. B. in paranoia. Frequently affected are people with psychoses or dementia sufferers, who then, for example, constantly have the feeling of being stolen, poisoned or impoverished.

Hallucinations can be signs of a serious illness. People with schizophrenia often have auditory hallucinations. The wall speaks to them or makes noises, voices in the head usually comment maliciously on their own behavior. In the case of alcoholics or people with delirium, optical hallucinations predominate; they then see the proverbial white mice, for example. In the context of these psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations require treatment.

Hallucinations also occur in healthy people. Sometimes there are banal triggers behind it such as fatigue. Social isolation or a prolonged stay in dark, anechoic rooms also lead to hallucinations, since the human brain demands stimuli and therefore uses its own memory if they fail to appear. Lack of appropriate stimulation is also the reason why lonely people often "invent" companions. This is not pathological and almost typical after the loss of a loved one.

Another harmless variant of hallucination is that hypnagogic hallucination. These are optical or acoustic deceptions that only occur while falling asleep or waking up. They have no disease value.

Symptoms, their causes, measures and self-help

  • Hallucinations (noises, voices or shapes) at the transition between being awake and sleeping

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  • Hallucinations with pronounced lack of sleep or complete exhaustion

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  • Hallucinations during meditative exercises, social isolation (e.g. solitary confinement), prolonged stay in a low-stimulus environment (e.g. dark, quiet rooms)

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  • Seeing flashes of light, spots, patterns, light or color, less often pictures or scenes

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  • Hearing nonexistent noises or voices without further psychological discomfort

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  • Hallucinations (e.g., small animals) and delusions; anxious restlessness or excitement; Confusion, lack of orientation, impaired memory; possibly impaired consciousness; possibly sweating, tremors

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  • Hallucinations if you have known epilepsy

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  • Hallucinations and delusions with slowly increasing forgetfulness and confusion; Anxiety and excitement; Personality changes

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  • Often bizarre delusions and hallucinations; commenting voices; strange body feelings; erratic thinking; Feeling deprived of thoughts; bizarre or disorganized behavior

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  • Tormenting hallucinations and / or delusions with depression; Lack of drive; v. a. Delusions of guilt or impoverishment

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  • Pleasant delusions with a basic euphoric mood and activity; typically delusions of grandeur or delusions of love

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  • Hallucinations and delusions, associated with noticeably dilated pupils

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  • Hallucinations and delusions from alcohol or drug abuse

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  • Hallucinations and delusions while taking medication

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Hallucinations (noises, voices or shapes) at the transition between being awake and sleeping

Root cause:

  • Normal appearance of falling asleep and waking up (hypnagogic hallucinations)

Measure:

  • None required as it is harmless

Hallucinations with pronounced lack of sleep or complete exhaustion

Causes:

  • Normal response to lack of recovery
  • Reaction to sleep deprivation due to acute or chronic illness

Self help:

  • Giving the body what it wants - sleep and rest

Hallucinations during meditative exercises, social isolation (e.g. solitary confinement), prolonged stay in a low-stimulus environment (e.g. dark, quiet rooms)

Root cause:

  • Normal response to lack of external stimuli; Special forms: spiritual ecstasy and visions

Self help:

  • Avoiding social isolation, v. a. in the elderly, single, to prevent hallucinations

Seeing flashes of light, spots, patterns, light or color, less often pictures or scenes

Causes:

Measure:

  • If this occurs for the first time on the same or next day, to the family doctor or eye doctor

Hearing nonexistent noises or voices without further psychological discomfort

Causes:

  • Tinnitus (ringing in the ears, ringing in the ears)
  • Hearing voices, e.g. B. after the loss of a loved one or social isolation
  • Not age-related deafness or deafness
  • Onset of schizophrenia

Measure:

  • If you appear for the first time on the same or next day to the general practitioner

Hallucinations (e.g., small animals) and delusions; anxious restlessness or excitement; Confusion, lack of orientation, impaired memory; possibly impaired consciousness; possibly sweating, tremors

Causes:

Acute organic psychosis and delirium

Measure:

  • Immediately to the family doctor, psychiatrist or to the nearest clinic

Hallucinations if you have known epilepsy

Causes:

Measure:

  • If after or between seizures on the same day, if there is an additional clouding of consciousness, go to the family doctor, neurologist or clinic immediately

Hallucinations and delusions with slowly increasing forgetfulness and confusion; Anxiety and excitement; Personality changes

Root cause:

Chronic organic psychosis, e.g. B.

Measure:

  • In the next few weeks to the family doctor

Often bizarre delusions and hallucinations; commenting voices; strange body feelings; erratic thinking; Feeling deprived of thoughts; bizarre or disorganized behavior

Root cause:

Measure:

  • Immediately to the family doctor or to a psychiatric outpatient clinic

Tormenting hallucinations and / or delusions with depression; Lack of drive; v. a. Delusions of guilt or impoverishment

Root cause:

Measure:

  • Immediately to the family doctor or to a psychiatric outpatient clinic

Pleasant delusions with a basic euphoric mood and activity; typically delusions of grandeur or delusions of love

Root cause:

Measure:

  • In the next few days to the family doctor or to a psychiatric outpatient clinic

Hallucinations and delusions, associated with noticeably dilated pupils

Root cause:

Activities:

  • Seek advice from the poison control center
  • Contact an emergency doctor

Hallucinations and delusions from alcohol or drug abuse

Root cause:

Measure:

  • If possible, on the same day to the family doctor or to a psychiatric clinic

Hallucinations and delusions while taking medication

Root cause:

Side effect, e.g. B. from

Measure:

  • In the next few days to the family doctor, if the drug has been prescribed by a doctor

Self help:

  • Discontinue self-medication

Your pharmacy recommends

Look closely.

Hallucinations have a variety of causes, from serious to harmless. If you are unsure, get professional help to assess the situation.

Find the ideal solution.

Even professional nursing professionals disagree on how to deal with delusions and hallucinations. Especially when meeting people with dementia, many relatives switch to "white lies" in order not to unnecessarily worry the sick. Let yourself be guided by your feelings and decide on a case-by-case basis. Listen to your gut when you have moral concerns. For example, many relatives feel uncomfortable using tricks to induce the sick to behave in a certain way ("You have already missed the bus, so you can go back to bed"). Sometimes it also helps to simply switch to topics that the person concerned realistically perceives.

Give support.

Many mentally ill people initially refuse to seek professional help. Be persistent! Because even if you are an important social point of contact as a relative or friend - without medical or psychological support, serious psychiatric illnesses can hardly be dealt with. Do not assume too much responsibility and contact your general practitioner, a psychiatrist, or a crisis center.

Protect yourself.

Unfortunately, it is not that rare that those affected become aggressive in practice. Get help before the situation gets completely out of hand. Suitable contact points are z. B. the emergency doctor or the social psychiatric service. Sometimes it is even necessary to inform the police. Even if it takes some effort: The self-protection and the protection of the sick person from himself then come first.

Authors

Dr. med. Arne Schäffler; Dr. med. Brigitte Strasser-Vogel; in: Gesundheit heute, edited by Dr. med. Arne Schäffler. Trias, Stuttgart, 3rd edition (2014). Editing: Sara Steer | last changed on at 14:54


Important note: This article has been written according to scientific standards and has been checked by medical professionals. The information communicated in this article can in no way replace professional advice in your pharmacy. The content cannot and must not be used to make independent diagnoses or to start therapy.