Can delusions contradict each other
Hallucinations, hallucinations and delusions
Our senses determine what we perceive as reality. It is all the more disturbing when one's own sensory impressions differ from those of others. That happens at about Hallucinations. Then sensory impressions are experienced that are not based on real external stimuli. At aIllusion a real sensory impression is misinterpreted, e.g. B. a bush perceived in the dark as a crouching figure. A Delusion in turn, it is a pathological, uncorrectable conviction that those affected cling to even when it contradicts the judgment of others and contradicts logic, e.g. B. in paranoia. Frequently affected are people with psychoses or dementia sufferers, who then, for example, constantly have the feeling of being stolen, poisoned or impoverished.
Hallucinations can be signs of a serious illness. People with schizophrenia often have auditory hallucinations. The wall speaks to them or makes noises, voices in the head usually comment maliciously on their own behavior. In the case of alcoholics or people with delirium, optical hallucinations predominate; they then see the proverbial white mice, for example. In the context of these psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations require treatment.
Hallucinations also occur in healthy people. Sometimes there are banal triggers behind it such as fatigue. Social isolation or a prolonged stay in dark, anechoic rooms also lead to hallucinations, since the human brain demands stimuli and therefore uses its own memory if they fail to appear. Lack of appropriate stimulation is also the reason why lonely people often "invent" companions. This is not pathological and almost typical after the loss of a loved one.
Another harmless variant of hallucination is that hypnagogic hallucination. These are optical or acoustic deceptions that only occur while falling asleep or waking up. They have no disease value.
Symptoms, their causes, measures and self-help
Hallucinations (noises, voices or shapes) at the transition between being awake and sleepingmore
Hallucinations with pronounced lack of sleep or complete exhaustionmore
Hallucinations during meditative exercises, social isolation (e.g. solitary confinement), prolonged stay in a low-stimulus environment (e.g. dark, quiet rooms)more
Seeing flashes of light, spots, patterns, light or color, less often pictures or scenesmore
Hearing nonexistent noises or voices without further psychological discomfortmore
Hallucinations (e.g., small animals) and delusions; anxious restlessness or excitement; Confusion, lack of orientation, impaired memory; possibly impaired consciousness; possibly sweating, tremorsmore
Hallucinations if you have known epilepsymore
Hallucinations and delusions with slowly increasing forgetfulness and confusion; Anxiety and excitement; Personality changesmore
Often bizarre delusions and hallucinations; commenting voices; strange body feelings; erratic thinking; Feeling deprived of thoughts; bizarre or disorganized behaviormore
Tormenting hallucinations and / or delusions with depression; Lack of drive; v. a. Delusions of guilt or impoverishmentmore
Pleasant delusions with a basic euphoric mood and activity; typically delusions of grandeur or delusions of lovemore
Hallucinations and delusions, associated with noticeably dilated pupilsmore
Hallucinations and delusions from alcohol or drug abusemore
Hallucinations and delusions while taking medicationmore
Hallucinations (noises, voices or shapes) at the transition between being awake and sleeping
- Normal appearance of falling asleep and waking up (hypnagogic hallucinations)
- None required as it is harmless
Hallucinations with pronounced lack of sleep or complete exhaustion
- Normal response to lack of recovery
- Reaction to sleep deprivation due to acute or chronic illness
- Giving the body what it wants - sleep and rest
Hallucinations during meditative exercises, social isolation (e.g. solitary confinement), prolonged stay in a low-stimulus environment (e.g. dark, quiet rooms)
- Normal response to lack of external stimuli; Special forms: spiritual ecstasy and visions
- Avoiding social isolation, v. a. in the elderly, single, to prevent hallucinations
Seeing flashes of light, spots, patterns, light or color, less often pictures or scenes
- If this occurs for the first time on the same or next day, to the family doctor or eye doctor
Hearing nonexistent noises or voices without further psychological discomfort
- Tinnitus (ringing in the ears, ringing in the ears)
- Hearing voices, e.g. B. after the loss of a loved one or social isolation
- Not age-related deafness or deafness
- Onset of schizophrenia
- If you appear for the first time on the same or next day to the general practitioner
Hallucinations (e.g., small animals) and delusions; anxious restlessness or excitement; Confusion, lack of orientation, impaired memory; possibly impaired consciousness; possibly sweating, tremors
Acute organic psychosis and delirium
- Immediately to the family doctor, psychiatrist or to the nearest clinic
Hallucinations if you have known epilepsy
- If after or between seizures on the same day, if there is an additional clouding of consciousness, go to the family doctor, neurologist or clinic immediately
Hallucinations and delusions with slowly increasing forgetfulness and confusion; Anxiety and excitement; Personality changes
Chronic organic psychosis, e.g. B.
- In the next few weeks to the family doctor
Often bizarre delusions and hallucinations; commenting voices; strange body feelings; erratic thinking; Feeling deprived of thoughts; bizarre or disorganized behavior
- Immediately to the family doctor or to a psychiatric outpatient clinic
Tormenting hallucinations and / or delusions with depression; Lack of drive; v. a. Delusions of guilt or impoverishment
- Immediately to the family doctor or to a psychiatric outpatient clinic
Pleasant delusions with a basic euphoric mood and activity; typically delusions of grandeur or delusions of love
- In the next few days to the family doctor or to a psychiatric outpatient clinic
Hallucinations and delusions, associated with noticeably dilated pupils
- Seek advice from the poison control center
- Contact an emergency doctor
Hallucinations and delusions from alcohol or drug abuse
- If possible, on the same day to the family doctor or to a psychiatric clinic
Hallucinations and delusions while taking medication
Side effect, e.g. B. from
- In the next few days to the family doctor, if the drug has been prescribed by a doctor
- Discontinue self-medication
Your pharmacy recommends
Hallucinations have a variety of causes, from serious to harmless. If you are unsure, get professional help to assess the situation.
Find the ideal solution.
Even professional nursing professionals disagree on how to deal with delusions and hallucinations. Especially when meeting people with dementia, many relatives switch to "white lies" in order not to unnecessarily worry the sick. Let yourself be guided by your feelings and decide on a case-by-case basis. Listen to your gut when you have moral concerns. For example, many relatives feel uncomfortable using tricks to induce the sick to behave in a certain way ("You have already missed the bus, so you can go back to bed"). Sometimes it also helps to simply switch to topics that the person concerned realistically perceives.
Many mentally ill people initially refuse to seek professional help. Be persistent! Because even if you are an important social point of contact as a relative or friend - without medical or psychological support, serious psychiatric illnesses can hardly be dealt with. Do not assume too much responsibility and contact your general practitioner, a psychiatrist, or a crisis center.
Unfortunately, it is not that rare that those affected become aggressive in practice. Get help before the situation gets completely out of hand. Suitable contact points are z. B. the emergency doctor or the social psychiatric service. Sometimes it is even necessary to inform the police. Even if it takes some effort: The self-protection and the protection of the sick person from himself then come first.
AuthorsDr. med. Arne Schäffler; Dr. med. Brigitte Strasser-Vogel; in: Gesundheit heute, edited by Dr. med. Arne Schäffler. Trias, Stuttgart, 3rd edition (2014). Editing: Sara Steer | last changed on at 14:54
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