Can apply for Para Commando naval personnel

The Niemannsweg was once a narrow field path that belonged to the district of the village of Brunswik and ran from there between Knicks and the royal Danish forestry school founded in 1785. It was in the hands of August Christian Niemann (1761–1832). He completed his habilitation at the University of Kiel in 1785 and was appointed professor of camera science, police science, finance and land management here in 1794. As early as 1788 he had set up a forest tree nursery in the Düvelsbek enclosure "to promote the distribution of usable wood plants in the forests of the country", and "for a clear acquaintance [of the Forstadjunkten] with the forest enterprise and for practical exercise in the tasks involved." To get to the forest nursery from the city, Niemann went to the Grand Duke's Garden, today's Schlossgarten, and reached a field path around today's Klaus-Groth-Platz that began at the edge of the Bredenkamps (wide field) and northwards between the parcels of Duve Bleek (Teufelsbleiche ) and Hohen Berges through the Vassen Koppel (overgrown field), further between Jetten Brede (Riesenbreite) and Lange Hörn (Lange Ecke), through Lendesberg (Hohe Lende), Bullen Kamp (Bullenweide) to Marienhöhe, from where the path led greatly decreased. The Kiel bookseller Hans Eckardt described the development of the Niemannsweg in his book “Alt-Kiel in Wort und Bild” in 1899: “It used to be a narrow field path that led through between Knicks. At the beginning of the path, a small stream trickled over him, which flowed into the harbor at Seelust2. From the Karolinenweg the path did not have the current direction, but led past a small pond over paddocks past the observatory to the tree nursery. At the time the path was built in 1872, there were only a few houses on the narrow path. Some of them still had beautiful large gardens. Only at the beginning of the seventies, after the naval hospital was built, were more houses built there and now almost the whole way is built on. «3 After Brunswik was incorporated into the city of Kiel in 1869, the Niemannsweg was called the end of Schwanenweg and Hospitalstraße An up to the forest tree nursery initially Hohenbergsredder4, but was given the name Niemannsweg on June 4, 1869 due to a resolution of the municipal colleges. In 1873, at the request of the city, the fiscal enclosure Düsternbrook with the forest tree nursery was added. The city was imposed to maintain and manage both as a forest or a park. Land was not allowed to be separated and sold5. As a result, the Niemannsweg retained its unique location from its exit to the Ahlmann Villa on the edge of a spacious wood. It developed into a 2.44 km long, rising and falling road, lined with trees, with slight bends, following the natural conditions, which soon became one of the most beautiful in Kiel. Since 1873, the Kieler Beautification Association has looked after the maintenance of the Niemannsweg. In 1877 the city took over the maintenance and expansion of the Karlstrasse to the The History of the Niemannsweg From Feldweg to Villenstrasse August Christian Heinrich Niemann (Photo SHLB) 9 The History of the Niemannsweg 10 North end of the Düvelsbeker wood to a wide drive and footpath . After the Niemannsweg had already been largely built on on its east side by 1885, the city bought a third of the free building space in front of the garrison church at the suggestion of the association. The club and the navy each acquired another third. This took over the creation and use of a staircase to the garrison church in order to ensure a clear view of the church from Niemannsweg6. View from Niemannsweg towards the castle (left) and Nikolaikirche (right) (photo private) The importance within the Kiel city area According to its preferred topographical location, on the edge of the Düsternbrook wood, the Niemannsweg was an elongated quiet zone in the north of Kiel with plenty of space Tree growth and no through traffic. Since the Niemannsweg was not affected by the Kiel development plans of the years 1885–1893 and 1901, only the police ordinance of 1895 applied to it, which prescribed open and semi-open building methods in the manner of a country house7. After that, the houses were only separated from their neighbors and from the street by fences, trees, bushes and stone walls. In addition to the villas as single buildings in low-rise construction with up to three floors8, there was also a closed construction method of several apartment buildings with up to four floors built together. The destruction of the Second World War and the subsequent reconstruction changed the appearance considerably. The multi-storey rented storey houses disappeared in favor of two-storey villas. In 1896, the Kiel Secret Health Council criticized Dr. Gustav Neuber, member of the city council, wrote the expansion plans of the city architect Friedrich Wilhelm Schweitzer in a memorandum, because they provided for a straight expansion of the streets and were not based on the natural conditions of the site, and referred to counterexamples: “Why are Düsternbrook9 and Niemannsweg ours? most beautiful streets? Because they completely avoid the ugliest thing there is, because a new, beautiful image opens up to the eye at each of its bends and curves. A straight road is aesthetically poor because it has only one motif, only one face! A road with broken lines is aesthetically rich, because it has as many landscape motifs as there are bends. «10 In 1901, the urban expansion plan developed by the Cologne city planning officer Josef Stübben followed Neber's proposal11. Until the destruction in World War II, the houses on Niemannsweg reflected the architecture of the 19th and 20th centuries: the historicist style with neo-romantic, neo-gothic, neo-renaissance, neo-baroque and neoclassicism. After that, the homeland security movement gained in importance. B. the framework, recorded. Many of the houses on Niemannsweg that were influenced by these architectural styles were destroyed in the Second World War. What has been preserved, however, can still be regarded as architectural historical evidence of bygone times. The Niemannsweg was a reflection of the living environment of its residents, i. H. their economic, social and cultural needs. The villas and multi-storey apartment buildings with large rental apartments corresponded to the demands of members of the city's leading class. This also included the opportunities offered by nearby sites of popular sports such as tennis and sailing. That is why the judiciary Julius Schirren, who lives in Niemannsweg, founded the exclusive tennis company Düsternbrook in 1898, very close to Moltkestrasse, which moved to Karolinenweg in 1900. Since Prince Adalbert, a brother of Kaiser Wilhelm II, was a passionate tennis player, the sons of the mathematician Prof. Heffter, who lived at Niemannsweg 92, were called out of the classes at the Royal High School to play tennis with the nobleman12. When the Imperial Yacht Club was founded on Strandweg not far from Niemannsweg in 1891, it was mainly joined by naval officers and wealthy merchants13. Many of them lived in Niemannsweg. The emperor gave the club its greatest splendor when he became a Commodore and his brother Prince Heinrich became Vice-Commodore. The club gained international renown during the Kieler Woche with its regatta battles, which, due to the regular presence of Wilhelm II, became a representative state act and thus the most important social event in Kiel during the German Empire14. The Niemannsweg was also the place of everyday life for its residents. Not only was it their home in the literal sense, but it was also the place of enculturation for the growing children. The gardens belonging to the houses and the Niemannsweg itself, as a quiet, little-traveled street with its wide footpaths, invited to various games in the fresh air. Here the children could play on stilts, limping, hide and seek, etc., without hindrance. Until after the Second World War, there was an essentially unhindered walking rhythm due to the low level of car traffic. Housewives, servants, schoolchildren, and most of the working population could be seen walking. Only those who owned a horse and carriage and had a car since the 1930s could accelerate the pace15. Kiel residents from other parts of the city also occasionally visited the Niemannsweg to take a walk there and look at the villas16. People wanted to know how the upper class of society in the city lived. These included, above all, the banking family Ahlmann with their villa located in a spacious park on the edge of the Düsternbrook wood and the Forsteck country house, which had belonged to the Kiel shipowner and millionaire Heinrich Diederichsen (1865–1942) since 1890 and had its own tennis court and on the opposite On the side of the Niemannsweg there is an extensive nursery. However, it was not only the structural attractions in the midst of the extensive grounds that interested the public, but also the nearby recreation area of ​​the Düsternbrook wood, that hilly forest area with its dense tree population and its dreamy ponds, the diana mirror and the moon mirror, which were unique in Kiel were. Meanwhile, life on the Niemannsweg was also determined by other factors. Above all, the political developments in Germany had an impact on life in the Niemannsweg. When construction began in 1872, the Second German Empire was still in its infancy. Only a few years earlier, in 1867, Kiel had become the Prussian naval base, Die Geschichte des Niemannsweg 12. But after it was elevated to the status of a Reich War Harbor in 1871, decisive changes occurred for the city, which also touched the Niemannsweg. Because a small town characterized by a medium-sized economy with trade and commerce became a large city, largely determined by the shipbuilding industry, which attracted a large number of workers. In 1900 Kiel became a major city, and by the beginning of the First World War its population had even doubled. With the establishment of the Imperial Navy, a lot of the military also came to the city. This rapid development also affected the Niemannsweg. Expansion began hesitantly in 1872, but has progressed rapidly since 1890. The attractive location in Düsternbrook ensured an individual way of living, which attracted the wealthy middle class, higher classes in the navy and the professorships at Christian-Albrechts-Universität. The lower classes were limited to a few craftsmen and the domestic staff of the cooks, chambermaids, house servants and coachmen. Inside the Düsternbrook wood in 1893 (photo Wilhelm Dreesen) The political epochs of recent German history also had an impact on the Niemannsweg. Since Kiel became the Imperial War Port in 1871, one not only saw numerous uniforms of local navy members in Niemannsweg, but also the neo-Gothic garrison church as a towering building. It was the place where the military gathered for festive services and also for some splendid wedding parties of young officers. A special event took place on the forecourt of the church on June 20, 1900, when a bronze crucifix by the artist and professor at the Berlin Academy of the Arts Gustav Heinrich Eberlein (1847–1926), which Kaiser Wilhelm II had donated to the Kiel marine community, was inaugurated in the presence of the emperor and the highest admiralty. The "Kieler Zeitung" reported enthusiastically: "Shortly after 2 ½ o'clock a distant hurray announced the approach of the emperor, the honor company presented to the sounds of the presentation march, and the monarch, who had meanwhile got out of the court carriage, slowly walked the front of the company." The Niemannsweg In the mirror of the political events bronze crucifix in front of the garrison church by Georg Eberlein 1900 (photo SHLB) 13 The Niemannsweg as reflected in the political events Another monument on the forecourt of the church immediately before the stairway to the Niemannsweg was dedicated to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1871 –1897), who drowned in a storm in 1897 in the roadstead of Cuxhaven as a torpedo boat commander. The mighty red marble obelisk was created by the Mecklenburg sculptor Ludwig Brunow (1843–1913). On it is the bronze relief with the portrait of the duke and the inscription: Friedrich Wilhelm Herzog zu Mecklenburg the heroic commander S.M. Torpedo boat S 26 with seven braves of its crew found the death of a seaman when the boat sank in the Elbe estuary on September 22nd, 1897 On the back it says: Your incomparable comrade Friedrich Wilhelm Herzog zu Mecklenburg The sea officers The Duke was on the torpedo boat S 26 from Wilhelmshaven coming in heavy seas so that it was overturned and drifted up keel. The entire crew was killed. The inscription on the marble obelisk was donated by the officers of the Baltic Sea Naval Station. The memorial was inaugurated in a solemn act in 1898 with the participation of the officer corps of the Baltic Sea Naval Station17. Other visible witnesses of the presence of the imperial navy were the mighty The Kiel Admiralty at the inauguration of the crucifix monument in 1900 (photo city archive Kiel) Kaiser Wilhelm II was often in Kiel and visited the fleet. On one of his visits he drove through the Niemannsweg in an open carriage with his brother Prince Heinrich, who lived at Kiel Castle. (Postcard H. Hansen) The history of the Niemannsweg 14 Building of the naval hospital on Karlstrasse shortly before the start of the Niemannsweg. A remarkable change occurred for the residents of the Niemannsweg when Kiel experienced a sailors' uprising in November 1918, which noticeably damaged the high social standing of the naval officers18. After the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1918, the fleet was significantly reduced in size due to the peace provisions, so that numerous officers had to be retired. The navy lost its central importance for Kiel, especially since the shipbuilding industry of its most important client was lost as a result. Added to this were the years of inflation from 1920–1923, in which many private assets were lost. Before that, however, there had been a brief political interlude when the Kapp Putsch occurred in March 1920 and the East Prussian General Landscape Director Wolfgang Kapp, with the support of politicized sections of the German troops, attempted to overthrow the Reich government in Berlin. Captain Karl Eltze also played a role. He was subordinate to the chief of the naval station of the Baltic Sea, Rear Admiral Magnus v. Levetzow (1871-1939) 19, who sided with the putschists and was largely responsible for the bloody street fights with the workers in Kiel. Eltze joined v. Levetzow. During the Kapp Putsch, Eltze, Ludwig Ahlmann's son-in-law, is said to have housed units of the battalion of the Loewenfeld Marine Brigade stationed in Kiel and on the side of the coup in the garden of Ahlmann's villa20. After the revolt was put down, v. Levetzow called to Berlin. He then went with Eltze in civilian clothes on a naval launch to Hohwacht and on to Lütjenburg to travel to Berlin. But they were recognized and arrested. Although the naval station command tried to prevent v. To prevent Levetzow's return to Kiel, the Social Democratic Police President Wilhelm Poller ensured that the arrested were brought back to Kiel. They remained arrested until the beginning of May. They were later given amnesty21. The architect Ernst Prinz (1878–1974) was also politically active during the Kapp Putsch. He was a member of the German People's Party and, together with the automobile salesman Wilhelm Reimers, founded the Ordnungsbund in Kiel in 1919 in order to help maintain law and order22. However, the organization did not have the appropriate forces and necessary military knowledge23. Prince, who had initially been its chairman, gave up his office in 1919, but remained on the inner board. During the Kapp Putsch, the Ordnungsbund with 2-3 companies submitted to Admiral v. Levetzow as the military commander of the Kiel governorate, who had them armed. Prince took part in meetings with v. Levetzow participated in the Naval Academy and acted as a liaison. However, the Ordnungsbund was not used in the fighting on March 1524. Ernst Prinz owned the house at Niemannsweg 10 (AB 1934) in the 1930s. The so-called golden years from 1924 to 1928 only meant a short respite until the world economic crisis from 1929 to 1933 tore Germany back into the abyss. These threatening developments during the Weimar Republic also cast their shadows on the Niemannsweg. The number of residents fell from 266 in 1914 to 197 in 1926, i.e. by 26.5 percent.The Villa Niemannsweg 78, the official residence of the governor as the chief official of the provincial administration, acquired a brief significance as Reich President v. Hindenburg lived here during his visit to Kiel in 1927. From then on the villa was popularly known as the Hindenburghaus25. The seizure of power by the National Socialists in 1933 brought about further changes for the Niemannsweg. The Second World War they instigated led to devastating destruction there. Many buildings were partially or completely destroyed. As a result, the street lost the characteristic features of its Wilhelmine and Art Nouveau architecture. Presumably, the mostly bourgeois population of the Niemannsweg welcomed the end of the Weimar Republic. Because she accused her of signing the Versailles Peace, which was perceived as shameful, and which had resulted in the disarmament of the fleet and the reduction of naval personnel as well as the decline in warship construction. The fact that the empire got more and more political and economic turmoil during this period also appeared to be a weakness of the republic. The economic rise after the National Socialist seizure of power, on the other hand, was perceived as a strength. A new era began in Kiel with rearmament in 1936, which led to full employment in the shipyards. New naval ships were built and large numbers of naval personnel were hired26. Military offices were located in Niemannsweg, such as the naval site administration and offices of the naval academy in the Villa Ahlmann. In addition, there was the Air Force Court in Villa Diederichsen and the Air District Command, which in 1936 was given a representative building at the end of Niemannsweg by the prominent National Socialist architect Ernst Sagebiel (1892–1970) 27. That the all-ruling NSDAP represented Reich President Paul v. Hindenburg 1927 in front of Villa Niemannsweg 78 (Postcard H. Hansen) President Paul v. Hindenburg on his way to Villa Niemannsweg 78 in 1927 (Postcard H. Hansen) The history of Niemannsweg 16 was, should have met the state party's need for political representation in Kiel's posh district. The Schleswig-Holstein Gauleitung, the Gaupresse- and Gaupropagandaamt, the SA-Gruppe Nordmark and the Reichspropagandaamt Schleswig-Holstein were in office here. In addition, the new rulers attached great importance to living in Niemannsweg. Hinrich Lohse (1896–1964) 28, Gauleiter of the NSDAP in Schleswig-Holstein and President of the Province, moved into the stately Villa Niemannsweg 52 in 1933, but only lived there for a short time until he moved to the Palais on Düsternbrooker Weg. which had once belonged to the Prussian Prince Adalbert and had been owned by the Prussian state since 191829. Disputes about a representative property on Niemannsweg broke out during the war, when both the navy and the city of Kiel laid claim to his Villa Forsteck and the extensive park belonging to it in 1942 after the death of the shipowner Heinrich Diederichsen30. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder and Gauleiter Hinrich Lohse finally intervened in the disputes that took place between Günther Guse, Admiral of the Baltic Sea Naval Station, and Lord Mayor Walter Behrens. The state and the party were thus hostile to each other. As a result, Martin Bormann, head of the Fuehrer's chancellery, presented the matter to Adolf Hitler, who, however, adjourned it to the time after the war. For Admiral Guse, the affair had a personal consequence in that he was relieved of his post. In the meantime the city had become the owner of Villa Forsteck. The navy used them for their own purposes in the course of a seizure for military reasons. Therefore, the main hearing of the court lord of the 2nd submarine flotilla against the submarine commander Oberleutnant z. S. Oskar Kusch took place on the grounds of ›decomposing military strength‹. It ended with a death sentence, which was carried out on May 12, 1944 in Holtenau31. During the Third Reich, personalities who were decidedly critical of the National Socialist regime also lived in Niemannsweg. This included Otto Baumgarten (1858–1934), who represented practical theology at the University of Kiel. As early as 1926 he had turned against the emerging Nazi movement in his work »Cross and Swastika«. In 1930 he was therefore sharply branded in a leaflet of the Kiel National Socialist German Student Union. Another theologian who was hostile to National Socialism was Dr. Paul Husfeld (1909–1972), since 1937 pastor of the appeal by members of the Navy in front of the Kommandantur Niemannsweg 102 (Photo City Archives Kiel) 17 The Niemannsweg as reflected in the political events of the Heiligengeistgemeinde. In 1936 he had written a theological dissertation with the Kiel Luther researcher Peter Meinholdt (1907–1981) entitled “Studies on the Problem of the Law in Theology” 32. Co-referee was Martin Redeker (1900–1971), who had been a member of the NSDAP since 1934. Only a careful theological-scientific analysis could reveal whether the work contains approaches that are critical of the system towards the Nazi ideology. But there is evidence33 that Husfeldt, who came from Christiansfeld, the seat of the Moravians, later made it clear in confirmation classes and in his sermons that, from the point of view of Christian faith, he was both the "political church" and the distinction between " Semitic-Jewish servant souls "and" Aryan-Nordic master people "with their" self-assurance "rejected (sermon from 02/05/1939). He emphasized: “The German soul needs both at the same time: Worldwide religion! Self-restraint in the nation. «To be German therefore means not only to be German, but also to obey the Christian commandments. In 1941 he even stated to his congregation that the current war had no basis in the Christian faith. Husfeldt is said to have been summoned to Gestapo headquarters in Düppelstrasse and interrogated because of such statements34. Eduard Häfner (1877–1956) 35, director of the Kiel private secondary school in Niemannsweg 63, was also in contradiction to National Socialism. Born in Lower Franconia and son of a prison guard. He first studied Catholic theology in Würzburg, then in Munich, Lausanne and Cambridge Modern Languages. After the state examination, he was initially a teacher at the Knight Academy in Bedburg in North Rhine-Westphalia and in 1904 went to the Dr. Karl Heine founded a private school in Niemannsweg 63 in 1876. In 1907 Eduard Häfner married Anna Maria Zakrzewski, the daughter of a naval officer. They had three children: Karl Theodor (1911–1945), Maria Theresia (1915–1944) and Anna Maria (1917). There was also a separate residential building for foreign students on the property. The Kiel group of the Catholic student union Unitas also met in the Häfner house and celebrated their parties here. In 1920, Häfner took over the school management and two years later became the owner of the private school. At times she was visited by up to 140 boys and girls who she prepared for admission to secondary schools36. The Häfner couple with their daughter Anna around 1930 (private photo) Karl, Maria and Anna Häfner around 1927 (private photo) Die Geschichte des Niemannsweg 18 Member of the Association of the Scientific Catholic Students' Association Unitas and was therefore closely associated with Eduard Häfner, even if only for a short time Time, the young philologist Friedrich Krone (1895–1989). He had studied modern languages ​​and Latin for teaching as well as economics in Münster, Göttingen and Kiel, passed his state examination in 1923 and obtained his doctorate, and after his legal clerkship in 1923 found a job as an assistant teacher at Eduard Häfner's private secondary school. Krone lived in the next house with the well-known sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies. Later on, Krone became very politically active and after 1933 helped those who were oppressed and persecuted in the Association for the Defense against Anti-Semitism with the support of the Aid Committee for Catholic Non-Aryans. Above all, however, Krone played a leading role in the German Center Party, which he joined in 1923: from 1923 to 1929 he was its deputy general secretary, at the same time federal leader of E. Häfner (center) with the final class UII 1926/27 (photo private) Kieler Student group of the Unitas summer semester 1929 (photo private) 19 The Niemannsweg as reflected in the political events of the Catholic youth organization Windhorstbund, became a member of the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold37 in 1926 and was a member of the Reichstag from 1925–1933 as a center member for Cologne. During the Third Reich he was briefly managing director of Caritas Self-Defense from 1934 to 1935, but then had to make a living from casual work. After the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler in 1944, he was imprisoned for a few weeks in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Presumably, Häfner, who as a staunch Catholic and committed member of the St. Heinrich congregation in Kiel was also politically active and was the only member of the Kiel City Council to represent the German Center Party from 1929–1933, maintained contact with the Crown later on. Since Eduard Häfner was not ready to join the NSDAP after the National Socialists came to power, he came into conflict with the new rulers. After the closure of private schools in Germany had begun in 1940, Häfner received a notice of the closure of his institution from the district president in Schleswig in 1942 without giving any reason. He himself assumed that two of his students, who had passed their final exams in 1941 and belonged to the youth-borne resistance movement Swing Club38, were the reason for this. Häfner had been questioned several times by the Gestapo about the two students and was once arrested for two days39. According to tradition, after 1940 he was said to have taken in Jewish pupils who had to leave Kiel schools and tolerated a meeting of Jewish citizens in the school to discuss escape plans40. Häfner's neighbor on the left was the important sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies (1855–1936) 41, who was one of the first in his field to criticize National Socialism even before the seizure of power. Carnival of the Kiel student group of the Unitas around 1930 (private photo) Eduard Häfner around 1930 (photo Private) The history of Niemannsweg 20 and therefore in 1933 lost his license to teach in Kiel and his place as President of the German Society for Sociology. Due to the law enacted by the National Socialists in 1933 to restore the civil service, he also lost his official status.. This meant that from now on he no longer received any salary as an emeritus. The resulting economic hardship forced him to sell a large part of his library. His diagnosis that National Socialism was a temporary phenomenon after which a restoration of the monarchy would take place, however, was a tragic misjudgment. His son-in-law Rudolf Heberle (1896–1991) 42 also lived in Ferdinand Tönnie's ‘multi-storey apartment building. He had been married to the youngest Tönnies daughter Franziska since 1924. She was a member of the SPD. Immediately after the National Socialists came to power, Rudolf Heberle had problems with the dean of the Philosophical Faculty because he thought Heberle's lecture topics were unsuitable. When Heberle was denounced by a student in 1936 that he was disseminating the teachings of Marxism, and it also became known that Heberle's great-grandfather was a Jew within the meaning of the Nazi laws, his private lecturer salary was cut and the appointment as adjunct professor was not completed. Since Heberle could not find a publisher for his critical study "Rural Population and National Socialism" 43, he left Germany with his family in 1938 and emigrated to the USA. Opposed to the opponents and victims of National Socialism from the Niemannsweg was the large number of those who were either NSDAP members or "fellow travelers" or who behaved indifferently. Who belonged to the two groups on Niemannsweg can only be determined in a few cases. One of the prominent personalities of the party was Gauleiter Hinrich Lohse (1896–1964) 44, who only lived in Niemannsweg for a short time. A trained businessman, he became a bank clerk, joined the NSDAP in 1923 and became Gauleiter of the Schleswig-Holstein province in 1925. After the National Socialists came to power, he also held the post of Upper Prussian President until 1945. Lohse lived in the representative Villa Niemannsweg 52. Joachim Meyer-Quade (1897–1939) 45 was also a high-ranking Nazi functionary. Joined the NSDAP in 1925 and since 1927 a member of the SA, in 1932 he briefly took over the office of Gauleiter in Schleswig-Holstein, rose to SA Oberführer and led the SA sub-group in Schleswig. In 1930 Meyer-Quade was elected to the Reichstag for the NSDAP, renounced his mandate and in 1933 belonged to the Prussian state parliament. From 1934 he held the office of the Kiel Police President, led the SA Group Nordmark from 1935 and was appointed SA Obergruppenführer in 1937. On November 7, 1938, Reich Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels gave a sharp speech in Munich after the German legation secretary Ernst-Eduard vom Rath had been murdered in Paris by the Jew Herschel Grünszpan. The SA leaders present were ordered to take “spontaneous” actions against the Jews in the Reich. Thereupon Meyer-Quade, who was the staff leader of the SA group Nordmark in Munich, gave the instructions to Kiel by telephone, but expressly ordered that there should be no looting and abuse. In the event of resistance, however, the weapon should be used. Nevertheless, there were serious riots against Jews, Jewish institutions and businesses in Schleswig-Holstein, in connection with which the two German Jews Paul Leven and Gustav Lask were critically injured in Kiel. In 1939 Meyer-Quade fell in the Polish campaign. He lived in Niemannsweg 153. Ferdinand Tönnies 21 The Niemannsweg as reflected in the political events Another NSDAP functionary who lived in Niemannsweg was the Kiel NSDAP district leader Otto Ziegenbein (born 1910) 46. He had left high school with an upper secondary qualification and trained as an iron and steel former at Deutsche Werken, the former imperial shipyard in Kiel-Gaarden. At the age of 18, he joined the NSDAP, founded the local Hitler Youth group in 1927 and became a member of the SS in 1930. In 1937, Ziegenbein became district leader of the party in Kiel, and in 1944 he became district leader for local politics in Schleswig-Holstein. From 1939 he served in the Navy, but in 1941 he followed Gauleiter Hinrich Lohse to the Reichskommissariat Ostland, d. H. he switched to the German civil administration in the occupied Baltic countries, where he set up the "Eastern Work Area" for the NSDAP. In the spring of 1945 Lohse entrusted him with building up werewolf groups in Schleswig-Holstein. The Kiel group consisted of about 15 men. On May 4, 1945, Ziegenbein met Lohse in Flensburg, the current seat of the Reich government, and asked for instructions for the werewolf groups47. He lived in Niemannsweg 4. The staunch National Socialists also included some university professors from Kiel who lived in Niemannsweg. This included the theologian Hermann Mandel (1882–1946), a dedicated exponent of German theology, which did not follow Christian theology of the afterlife, but wanted to serve as a religion of reality in order to cope with life. Mandel openly admitted to the Nazi ideology in 1934 in his treatise "Nordic-Aryan Reality Religion". Mandel had been a party member since 1937. From 1937 to 1945 he was a member of the Nazi Lecturer Association48, and in 1939 he published his work "Rassenseelenkunde als Biologische Wissenschaft". During the war he took part in the "war effort of the humanities". He lived at Niemannsweg 53. The physician and Plato researcher Kurt Hildebrandt (1881–1966) was more reserved towards National Socialism. The fact that he became professor of philosophy in Kiel in 1934 instead of Julius Stenzel, who was on leave from the Nazis, was due to the efforts of the new rector Karl-Lothar Wolf (1901–1969), who was a physicist and natural sciences and philosophy in the sense of the new political Wanted to merge the orientation of the university49. Since Hildebrandt had also become a member of the NSDAP in 1933, nothing stood in the way of his appointment. He lived at Niemannsweg 21. One of the active National Socialists from the medical faculty was the gynecologist Ernst Philipp (1893–1961), who was the Nazi lecturer at the Christiana Albertina and the scientific advisory board for the medical and health sector (Photo Stadtarchiv Kiel) The history of Niemannsweg 22 in the Nazi state belonged50. His colleague Viktor Klingmüller (1870–1942) reckoned with the low membership number 20 322 to be one of the "old fighters" of the NSDAP. They lived in Niemannswg 125 and 98. Among the lawyers at Kiel University was Martin Busse (1906–1945), since 1940 full professor of peasant law.As such, he had to represent the blood and soil ideology of the National Socialists, which gave the peasantry a special legal role in the empire. He lived in Niemannswg 61. In the humanities, the historian Karl Alnor (1891–1940) stood out as a fan of blood and soil with his conviction of “race, space and empire”. He lived at Niemannsweg 18. The Kiel physicist and Nobel Prize laureate Philipp Lenard (1862–1947) had publicly sympathized with the leaders of the Hitler coup since 1924 and took the position that science, like everything man-made, was "racially, blood-wise" conditioned. He thus became a representative of German physics51. His colleague Hans Kopfermann (1895–1963), although a member of the NSDAP since 1941, turned against it. He lived in Niemannswg 22. Whether opponent or supporter of National Socialism: The entire population of Kiel was threatened by the Second World War and the related, increasingly widening aerial warfare. The Allied air raids on the entire city area began in 1942 and lasted until May 4, 194552. They caused devastating destruction and devastation, such as the photos of the ruins of the villa of the Kiel surgeon Dr. Show Lubinus. The worries, hardships and fears the individual found themselves in at that time are made clear by the notes of Kiel university professor Fritz Lettenmeyer (1891–1953), which were made after a bomb attack on January 4, 1944 at 11:13 a.m. Lettenmeyer lived on Hohenbergstrasse near Niemannsweg and feared for the life of his family, who wanted to get to safety in the nearby Reventlous tunnel during the attack. He was concerned about the question of whether his relatives had even reached the inside of the tunnel in time, because hundreds of people were often standing in a long queue in front of the entrance on Reventlouallee. He himself had stayed in the air raid shelter of his house. When he went to the entrance to Niemannsweg after the all-clear, the corner building was on fire. An adjacent villa - presumably at Niemannsweg 46 - received a direct hit, so that the back was smashed and the roof was no longer there. A small fire flickered on the first floor, which soon spread across the entire floor. Lettenmeyer wrote about the situation that presented itself to him: »Inside some people tried to extinguish, I joined the chain of buckets that brought the water from a garden opposite. In between, the residents of the ground floor carried out their things at random, had to lower them over a mound of rubble in front of the house and piled everything up in the front yard. I helped drag out a desk myself [...]. There were parts of bed frames, tables, small decorative furniture still covered with knickknacks, and otherwise unnecessary stuff next to piles of beds and kitchen utensils. By and large, the people recovered a great deal of their belongings. ”53 He reported about the garrison church that it was surrounded by huge bomb craters. However, the bombs would have had little effect on the soft sandy soil. In contrast, the small sexton's house attached to the church was "completely destroyed". The funnels along the Niemannsweg are "true museum pieces". The house in which the teacher K. [meant Dr. Richard Kohl lived in Niemannsweg 19a54] was so »squeezed together that the roof is 1 m above the ground. Ms. K. stood in front of it and cried, little Gudula, Ursel's friend, was quite happy. "Anna Wegener, who came from Villa Niemannsweg 84, impressively described in her memories how a resident of Niemannsweg experienced the bombing war:" It was on July 6, 1944 at 8 o'clock in the morning, when the wire radio reported the approach of a bomber squadron, as it has often done these days. I had a report made about it on the floors [the house had been divided into several apartments since the beginning of the war.]. On that day everyone refused to go to the bunker55 with a certain degree of carelessness. I was the only one who wandered into the Reventloubunker, as always out of caution. We had not yet had the experience that entire residential neighborhoods could be laid down house by house. So it happened on that unlucky morning. It was shortly after 9 o'clock when hundreds of planes flew in over Kiel 23 The Niemannsweg as reflected in the political events and these districts were set on fire or bombed. The attack could be heard booming loudly in the bunker. Finally the sirens sounded. Unsuspecting, as always, I went up the mountainous path to the Krusenkoppel. Immediately I saw a huge fire torch, our house was burning in its full width, the 1st and 2nd floors! The crater of a 250 kg bomb blocked my entrance to the garden at the back. The bomb fell 4–5 m from the house on the air-raid shelter side with a large crater. I had to make the detour via Karolinenweg to get to the property from Niemannsweg. I found all of the residents in the garden. My [house] help had carried our bedding onto the lawn. Small pieces of furniture were rescued from the house in a helpful manner by the roommates. No pin could be retrieved from the 2 floors. Several very serious incendiary bombs had penetrated the roof and one had probably fallen on the upper wooden staircase, which had immediately set fire to the wooden partition. There was some time to save before the flames hit the ground floor. But since every house was on fire, there was neither additional help nor water to extinguish. The glowing wood of the window frames fell everywhere and disrupted the rescue work, which was partly carried out through the windows on the ground floor. It burned for about an hour, and what did not perish on July 6th perished in a night air mine on July 16, so the north wall of a still undamaged room that we temporarily occupied was torn away. A bomb crater twice as large as the one in the back of the garden moved the entrance to the property that night. It was certainly 10 m deep and 24 paces long, probably coming from a 500 kg bomb. This also destroyed part of the front garden, the bars and the trees. The cellar vaults and the ceilings had withstood the red embers despite the stress. Everything that was in the basement was saved. And for months we had stowed everything down: carpets, pictures, curtains, linen, cloakroom, bedding, valuables. The embers smoldered over us for a long time - we had a temperature of over 30 degrees, which only gradually went out. During the day we stayed there in the basement, at night we slept outside, after all security and protection had again been destroyed on July 26th. «The air raids on Kiel56 began in April 1940 with a major night raid and have intensified since then June 30, 1941 more and more. On February 26, 1942, an attack took place, which besides the Esmarchstrasse and the Forstweg affected the young people from the devastation in the Niemannsweg (photo city archive Kiel) The history of the Niemannsweg 24 Niemannsweg. On July 26th, around 300 to 400 bombers flew into the Kiel area and caused devastating damage in Kiel-Nord, which particularly affected Tirpitzstrasse (Feldstrasse), Esmarchund Moltkestrasse, Düvelsbeker Weg, Reventlouallee and the Niemannsweg. However, it suffered the worst attack on August 26, 1944. During the war years, 67.7 percent of the odd house numbers and 79 percent of the even house numbers of the 97 houses on Niemannsweg were destroyed, making a total of 73 percent of all residential buildings. In addition to the air raid shelters in the cellars of the residential buildings, the population of Niemannsweg had access to a number of public bunker rooms against these threats: the aforementioned Reventloustollen, which was accessible from Reventlouallee and Düsternbrooker Weg and provided space for 2,500 people, the so-called Moltkestollen below the observatory was accessible from Es marchstrasse and provided shelter for 2000 people, and finally the Bellevuestollen on the property of the ship owner Karl Grammerstorf at Bismarckallee 24, which could be reached from Hindenburgufer and which could accommodate 800 people57. A particular accident occurred shortly before the end of the war on April 3, 1945, when an explosive bomb buried the Moltke tunnel and around 230 people were killed by the air pressure58. Ruins in Niemannsweg on both sides of the garrison church (Photo LDA)