What does Releve describe in ballet

TECHNICAL TERMS BALLET. North German Dance Workshop, Hanover Terminology of Classical Ballet


1 SPECIAL TERMS BALLET Norddeutsche Tanzwerkstatt, Hanover 2018 Terminology of Classical Ballet - A selection without claim to completeness!

2 GENERAL À la barre À la seconde À terre Adage / Adagio Allegro Allongé Aplomb Au milieu Balance Ballon Bras Cambré Choreographer De coté Demi On the pole to the second (position) on the side. Slow, beautiful movements on the floor. Most of the time the legs are in the air a lot and are held up for a long time. All jumped steps. extended It denotes the position of the arms with the palms facing the floor. It can also mean lengthening the arms or movement as much as possible in the (opposite) direction, i.e. making the position larger or longer. Self-control, self-assurance, poise, Lot Says the ballet teacher With Aplomb! is that the request to catch a movement, to control, to balance. In the middle of balance Standing hands-free on one or two legs in a ballet pose. Balloon Describes the aerial phase during jumps. For this it is necessary to reach the highest point of the jump height and stay there in the air. The higher the jump, the more effective the balloon. The effect of standing in the air can only be achieved in the absolute coordination of jump height and fixing the pose. Arm bent, creative inventor and designer of dances, the so-called architect of a dance piece or ballet. to the side half past one

3 GENERAL Devant Double En arrière En avant En bas En croix En haut En l air En suite Etude Exercise Fermé Grand Grand Allegro Jambe Ouvert Pas pas de Deux Petit Petit Allegro Pied front / back double back to front bottom in the cross A sequence of movements in shape of a cross, i.e. close to the front, close to the side, close to the back, close to the side - or a variation. up, up in the air in the sequence Is used when it is a question of taking a step several times in a row. Study - a little dance. Training of modern and classical dancers. closed large or whole All large jumps, with a lot of plié. Leg open / open step Step for two describes a danced duet. Small All small jumps are usually quick and easy. Foot 2

4 GENERAL Port de Bras Position Préparation Révérence Sauté Free leg Supporting leg Tendre Tutu Wearing the arms Port de Bras are the arm movements in classical ballet Position preparation A bow / bow of the dancer in front of the audience or the teacher jump a leg that performs a movement in a sequence of movements without weight, while the supporting leg remains on the floor or the body weight bears the leg that remains on the floor during a movement sequence or bears the body weight, while the other leg (free leg) performs a movement without any weight load. stretch A ballet skirt made of tulle that stands like a plate. DIRECTIONS OF MOVEMENT AND SPACE Croisé Dessous Dessus crossed You stand in such a way that your legs cross each other as seen by the audience. Croisé also describes a spatial direction. You turn your body one eighth away from the mirror. In the croisé, the free leg can only be at the front (coisé devant) or at the back (croisé derrière). Never to the side, as the spatial direction would then be called écarté. below e.g. at pas de bourrée, glissade, assemblé. Lingerie is used to indicate that the free leg should come into the closed position - often the 5th position - behind the other leg when moving from front to back. on top, via e.g. at pas de bourrée, glissade, assemblé. Dessus is used to indicate that the free leg should come into the closed position - often the 5th position - in front of the other leg when moving from back to front. 3rd

5 DIRECTIONS OF MOVEMENT AND SPACE Écarté devant and Écarté derrière Effacé en cloche spread apart, apart Saut écarté is a straddle or a straddle jump. Écarté also describes a spatial direction. You turn your body one eighth away from the mirror. In écarté, the free leg can only point to the side from the body (never in front or behind, otherwise the spatial direction would have to be croisé or éffacé). In écarté devant, the free leg points towards the audience. In the écarté derrière, the free leg points away from the audience. In the écarté devant, the head looks towards the free leg. In écarté derrière over the shoulder of the standing leg. discreet You stand in such a way that both legs can be seen completely from the audience. Effacé also describes a spatial direction. You turn your body one eighth away from the mirror. In effacé, the free leg can only be in the front (effacé devant) or in the back (effacé derrière) - never on the side - since the spatial direction would then be called écarté. like a bell en cloche describes a movement of the leg. It swings like a bell starting from devant dynamic to derrière or the other way around. In doing so, the foot completely touches the ground through the 1st position, the standing leg remains consistently upright and stretched. The swinging leg can be straight or in attitude when it is in the front or back in the end position. It is possible to perform en cloche at different heights: the foot can remain on the ground or rise to a grand battement height. En cloche does not necessarily have to go back and forth and can therefore be a single movement (e.g. performing from back to front or the other way around) If the upper body is moved slightly with it, it is called -en suite and executed high- also balançoire. In the Waganova system it is also called passé à terre (tendu en cloche) or passé la jambe (en l air). En dehors and En dedans En dehors - outside of and en dedans - inside, describe two directions of movement in ballet. There are different cases: 1. The dancer stands on one leg and the other leg does not move. Then the direction of movement of the standing leg heel is decisive, whether the movement is en dehors or en dedans. If the heel moves forward, it is called en dedans, it moves backwards en dehors. E.g. on promenade en dehors the standing leg heel moves backwards in small movements, on promenade en dedans it goes forward. One can also differentiate between pirouette en dehors & en dedans: depending on whether the standing leg rotates forwards or backwards. 4th

6 DIRECTIONS OF MOVEMENT AND SPACE En dehors and En dedans 2. There is a supporting leg and a free leg. A picture in the English language can help to visualize it a little more clearly: if the movement of the free leg goes to your back, it is en dehors. If it goes to your front, it is called en dedans. e.g. Play equipment at the rond de jambe a terre and the ellipses at the rond de jambe en l air. 3. It's about turning the legs. The turning of the legs, i.e. the typical leg posture in ballet, is also referred to as en dehors - outwards. Another common term for this is the so-called turnout. 4. It's about exercise. Some instructors also speak of en dedans and en dehors when performing an exercise on the bar from front to back (en dehors) or from back to front (en dedans). For example, there would be two tendus to the front, to the side and to the back en dehors. Two tendus to the rear, to the side and at the end to the front would be en dedans. En diagonale En face En manège sloping diagonal space path. The steps are carried out across the diagonal of the room. Stand / dance straight ahead with your face (and stomach!) to the audience or mirror. in der Manege describes a circular path in space that the dancer has to walk. In classic solo variations, the manège often ends with jumps or turns. ARMS ARMS Bras bas or preparatory position arm deep / down Preparatory arm position, the rounded arm position below, or the basic posture of the arms. In bras bas, the basic position of the arms, the forearm and upper arm are screwed together in opposite directions. This means that the upper arm is turned inwards at the shoulder joint and the forearm is turned outwards. This three-dimensional screw connection is retained during the movement in the port de bras. The shoulder blades are placed backwards, downwards and outwards and are kept stable there. 5

7 ARMS Demi-bras Demi-seconde (allongé) En couronne Épaulement half arm, arm position between the position, with the palms turned slightly upwards (offering, presenting) Arm position halfway between Bras bas and the 2nd position, arms and Hands in allongé. like a crown 3rd position of the arms, slightly crossing the hands. You can see that B. in ballets like Giselle or Specter de la Rose. In some styles, the normal 3rd arm position is called en couronne. Alignment - Épaule / shoulder Both shoulders and both iliac crests are open - turned about an eighth from the front - and the face points towards the audience. It is only through this slight rotation of the upper body that the dancer turns one shoulder a little more forward. This makes the movement look very dance-like. In the Waganova system, épaulement also describes the interplay between head posture / shoulder girdle (tilt, rotation) and spatial direction. It is crucial for the grace and line in classical dance. Port de bras In classical ballet, various arm movements can be performed. Both arms - or just one of the arms on the bar - move continuously and harmoniously through the various arm positions. The port de bras plays an important role in ballet because the arm movements complete and expand the lines created by the use of the head, upper body and legs. There are many different ways a port de bras can be performed. The head follows the arms throughout the movement, but never lowers too far towards the chest. A controlled and correct posture and placement of the arms is important with port de bras. The use of breathing and the eye line are also of great importance in making coordinated and clean transitions. The shoulders should always remain relaxed - for visual reasons, but also so as not to restrict mobility. Half / small port de bras or demi port de bras With a small / half port de bras one - or both arms - are opened by bras bas via the first position to the second position and then lowered again to bras bas. In English ballet theory one speaks of a simple port de bras. If the port de bras is performed the other way around, i.e. from the second position through the first position via bras bas to the second position, this is called the reverse. Other teachers also refer to the first way as en dehors and the reverse direction as en de dans. The demi Port de Bras is the same in the Russian and English schools. 6th

8 ARME Port de bras First port de bras Here the port de bras is carried out from bras bas via the first position to the third (Waganova) or fifth position (RAD) and from there via the second position back to bras bas. In English this port de bras is called Full port de bras Port de bras In the Russian school there are a total of six port de bras, which are precisely defined. The process of the port de Bras is complex and cannot be described in detail here. They also include port de bras cambré with the torso bent forward, backward and sideways. Position of the Bras Arm Positions of the Vaganowa Method: One of the most famous ballet styles in the world is the Vaganowa Method. This style is mainly taught in Russia, but also in state schools in Germany and around the world. The founder, Agrippina Waganowa, names only 3 basic arm positions of classical dance. She means that all other arm positions are only versions of these 3 basic positions. There is also the starting position, the so-called preparatory position. This is how the positions can be described in a simplified way: The preparatory position: The slightly rounded arms are held together in front of the body. The fingers are loose and close together. Neither arms nor hands touch the body and there is a slight gap between the hands. The 1st position: the arms are as in the preparatory position, but at the level of the navel. The arms are slightly rounded and are carried by the upper arms. The 2nd position: The arms are opened from the 1st position up to the side, with the elbow being very slightly rounded. The elbow is slightly lower than the shoulder, the hand with the little finger at the level of the elbow. The wrist is long and the hand points forward, the shoulders remain set, as in all other positions. The 3rd position: the arms have the same shape as in the preparatory position, but the hands are on top of the picture frame. There is also the concept of the small (petite) and large (grande) pose. In the small pose, one arm is in the 2nd position and one arm in the 1st position, which corresponds to the 3rd position in the RAD (Royal Academy of Dance) system. In the large pose, one arm is in the 2nd position and one arm in the 3rd position, which corresponds to the 4th position in the RAD system. 7th

9 ARMS position of the bra Arm positions of the English method: Royal Academy of Dance has its roots and headquarters in London. In addition to the preparatory position, the RAD uses 5 basic arm positions in ballet: The preparatory position as well as the 1st and 2nd positions are the same as those of the Waganowa method. RAD's 5th position is like the 3rd position of the Vaganova method: both arms are up. In addition, the 3rd and 4th positions are added: The 3rd position: One arm is in the 1st position and the second arm in the 2nd position (in the Waganova system = petite pose) The 4th position: normal (ordinaire ): One arm is in the 2nd position and the other in the 5th position (in the Waganova system = grande pose). And the 4th position crossed: one arm is in the 1st position and the other in the 5th position. POSITIONS POSITIONS Arabesque penchée Arabesque inclined, oblique The arabesque pencheé is a further development of the arabesque position. Here the upper body is lowered forward and the back leg is raised even further. Be careful: the tension in your back must not be lost! The aim is to spread your legs as wide as possible - into the splits or beyond. Decoration The supporting leg and free leg are both turned evenly, with the free leg stretched backwards (derrière) and lifted into the air. It is important that both legs really deliberately stay long and stretched and lead with energy in the respective direction. Only then does the pose get its typical charisma. The arms also play an important role in arabesque. They complete the overall picture and the position. Depending on the arm position in combination with the free leg, one speaks of a first, second, third or fourth arabesque. The arms are always long - allongé, i.e. not rounded (!), And the palms point down towards the floor. Note: In class, only the Arabesque arm position is often mentioned when both arms are gently extended - in the allongé - and the palms point down. The leg does not have to be behind and / or in the air. 9

10 POSITIONS POSES Attitude Posture As with the arabesque, you stand outwards on your supporting leg and lift your free leg in the air - usually to a height of 90 degrees, but depending on the exercise and physical performance level, it can also be kept lower or higher. There are three differences to arabesque: 1. The free leg is bent. In modern attitudes, the angle between the upper and lower legs is slightly larger than 90 degrees. 2. The arms are round. 3. The free leg can be lifted forwards (devant), backwards (derrière) or to the side (à la seconde). If the leg is held in front (devant), the lower leg with the heel is as high up as possible without disturbing the placement of the rest of the body. If the leg is held at the back (derrière), the dancer tries to place the lower leg parallel to the floor, with the heel centered behind the body and forming the lowest point. A sideways (à la seconde) attitude is rarely used in ballet and when it is used as a connecting movement and not as a pose. In an arabesque, the leg is exclusively derrière. It is important to make sure that the free leg retains the twist. With the attitude derrière, the knee should therefore not point towards the ground. The turn starts from the hips down and the knee is raised as supportive as possible without pushing the buttocks or the hips out to the side. In effacé, the knee is bent more than 90 degrees for visual reasons. (Sur le) Cou-de-pied The so-called extraordinary or extraordinary sur le cou-de-pied is also called coupé by many teachers. It is laid out in the same place as the sur le cou-de-pied, but the foot does not cling to the supporting leg, i.e. it does not wrap around it. In the unusual sur le cou-de-pied devant, the little toe touches the standing leg above the ankle, and at the back it is the heel that is put on. It is important in all positions that you do not make a banana or sickle foot.Make sure that in the cou-de-pied derrière the tip of the foot is away from the standing leg. Both legs are very deliberately turned out from the hips down, the pelvis remains upright and the supporting leg is long. Technically it is the same work as with a passé / retiré. 10

11 POSITIONS POSES Passé / Retiré passed / withdrawn In English ballet, a retiré describes the pulling up of the free leg foot to a position slightly below the kneecap. The little toe touches the indentation under the knee. With a retiré á la seconde, the foot is placed on the side of the leg, with a retiré devant at the front and with a retiré derrière at the back of the leg. In the Russian school, the same position as described above is called passé. Note: Passé can also describe that the free leg changes from the laid position on the front with the closing to the back or vice versa. In English ballet, the retiré is the position and the passé is exclusively the change from front to back or back to front. Most of our teachers say Passé about the position and the change. The passé can be both a position and an exercise! This is how you do a passé / retiré: On the way to the passé / retiré, the foot slides through half the tip and slides from the ground over cou-de-pied - wrapped or not - along the leg. The thigh is turned outwards, keeping the pelvis straight and erect. To return to the starting position - first or fifth position - the foot describes the same path back and glides back down along the leg, developing through half the tip until the foot is on the ground again. If the passé / retiré is performed from the second or fourth position, the foot goes as quickly as possible and by the shortest route to its end position on the knee. The passé / retiré position absolutely requires a stable leg. That means you mustn't sit on your standing leg, you have to pull yourself up. The pelvis is centered over the hip joint and the groin and supporting leg are as long as possible. The pelvic floor also works and pulls the ischial tuberosity on the side of the standing leg forward-up-inside. Sur le cou-de-pied on the neck of the foot It describes the foot position in which the free leg foot is wrapped around the ankle of the standing leg. This means the foot is placed on the ankle in a fully extended position, with the toes moving back a little and the heel staying in front. The sole of the playing foot touches the supporting leg. The knee of the free leg is bent and strongly twisted. Sus-sous (also sous-sus) over-under is the contraction of the feet from the whole sole to the 5th foot position at half point. 11

12 EXERCISES À LA BARRE Balançoire Dégagé Développé Enveloppé Swing, seesaw Is performed like a grand battement en cloche, but the upper body reacts with: If the leg is thrown forward, the upper body bends back more or less strongly into the cambré, the leg moves backwards The upper body is thrown out of the pelvis - standing leg swing - tilted slightly forward without the back losing its tension. Mostly a balançoire begins from the open position tendu forwards or backwards. But it can also start from the 5th position. release, release From a closed position, the free leg foot drags into an open position on the floor. In practice, tendu is often said even if the movement has not been completed but the leg is still open. In English ballet it is defined differently: namely as dégagé. One really only speaks of tendu here when the leg opens and closes again in the manner described. developed A développé describes a slow, unfolding movement of the free leg. The développé is a wonderful exercise for high legs. It can be carried out in all three directions: to the front (devant), to the side (à la seconde) or to the rear (derrière). The foot develops through the half point over cou-de-pied and drags along the leg up to the knee (passé / retiré). From there it goes through an attitude to the complete extension of the leg. The arms support the movement and complete the picture. They usually perform a port de bras in a coordinated manner with the leg movement. The développé is usually carried out as high as possible. The more stretched you are, the easier it becomes because the physical resistance is lower. With the petit développé, the leg is brought to a height of 45 degrees over the cou-de-pied or the tip of the foot ends on the ground (à terre). Then it's like a soutenu with no accent. Wrapping The enveloppé is carried out in the same way as the développé, but the other way around. The leg leads through half the point to the tendu and from there rises into the air (like a relevé lent), then closes with a passé / retiré along the supporting leg. To put it simply: the leg is lifted straight into the air, then the foot comes to the knee with the free leg turned out and drags back to the floor with contact with the standing leg. The enveloppé can be executed at different heights and both outside and in parallel (e.g. in jazz or modern). If the leg has come choreographically into an outstretched leg in the air in a different way and it is led from there into the passé / retiré, that is also an enveloppé. The decisive factor is the movement from an extended leg into a passé / retiré. 12

13 EXERCISES À LA BARRE Flex & Pointe Fondu Frappé Flexing and stretching - the punch line - of the foot is called differently in dance than in medicine. If the foot is flexed in dance, it is called dorsiflexion in medicine. If the foot is stretched, it is called plantar flexion in medicine. This is a bit confusing for dancers, especially when it comes to foot extension, i.e. medical flexion. The movement of flexing and stretching takes place in the upper ankle. If the foot is stretched and should be flexed quickly, the movement begins in the ankle and the heel pushes forward while the toes remain relaxed. If the foot is flexed and should be stretched, the heel is pulled back and up and the instep stretches before the toes stretch. So the foot goes over half the point in the extension. This is not only important for aesthetic reasons. Note: A dancer always stretches his foot over half the point! melted A battement fondu is a movement in which the supporting leg and free leg should arrive in a bent and a straight position at the same time. This exercise is extremely good for coordination, the feeling of length in the free leg and the quality of movement. In addition, strength and control develop during jumps. While the standing leg bends, the free leg is brought into the extraordinary sur le cou-de-pied in a coordinated manner. If the standing leg extends, the free leg unfolds through a small attitude to a straight leg at 45 degrees forwards (devant), to the side (à la seconde) or backwards (derrière). Both legs arrive in extension at the same time. Overall, the fondu requires great control of the outward rotation in both legs and a stable position on the supporting leg. to strike Frappé describes a striking, strong movement of the foot. The movement begins either with the free leg foot stretched or flexed in cou-de-pied, i.e. at the level of the ankle of the standing leg. From there, the free leg foot hits the outside until the leg is fully extended. Both variants (pointe or flex) can be carried out to the front (devant), to the side (à la seconde) or to the back (derrière). At the end, the toes are slightly raised from the floor while the leg is fully extended and internally lengthened. If the free leg foot starts flexing, the ball of the foot (half point) brushes the ground on the way out and the foot unfolds together with the knee of the free leg to full extension. To repeat the movement, return the foot to the starting position without touching the ground. With a frappé, the height of the thigh does not change and the outward rotation also remains stable during the entire movement. The emphasis on frappés is always outside. This means that you reach the set position in the air as quickly as possible and hold it for as long as possible. As a result, the rhythm is often not quite even and the movement becomes very powerful. Frappés can also be executed as double or triple. Here the foot changes position over the side of the ankle before striking outwards. 13th

14 EXERCISES À LA BARRE Grand battement (Jeté) Jambe sur la barre large thrown blow Here the free leg is thrown as high as possible forwards, to the side or backwards. The upper body must not react and the supporting leg must remain absolutely straight. The center remains taut and calm. The grand battement goes over the tendu to the jeté and is carried by the force / momentum used up to the grand battement. The radius of the leg is as large as the neat placement of the pelvis allows. From the highest point it is brought back to the 5th (or 1st / 3rd) position via the same positions. The upward movement of the leg should be carried out quickly and the downward movement with a controlled slowdown in front of the tendu. Leg on the bar describes the exercise of placing the leg on the ballet bar, usually introduced with dévelopé, for the purpose of stretching. (battement tendu) Jeté thrown The battement tendu jeté - sometimes also referred to as glissé or dégagé - describes, like the tendu, the opening and closing of the free leg forwards (devant), backwards (derrière) or to the side (à la seconde ). Like a battement tendu, the foot glides across the ground through half the tip and is then thrown into the air in a controlled manner up to 35 degrees (lower depending on the speed) and fixed there briefly. Fixation does not mean a stop here, but an active extension of the leg. The jeté can be performed from the first, third or fifth position. The speed of execution and the accentuation (accent outside or inside) can vary. With the jeté, just like with the tendu, you should pay attention to active footwork. Here, too, the pelvis is centered over the hip joint and thus guarantees stability and a controlled outward rotation - with both legs, including the supporting leg! Jeté piqué also Jeté pointé piksen, piercing The short tap of the stretched foot on the ground, e.g. in combination with a jeté, it is called piqué - or also pointé. The foot immediately rises back into the air and the emphasis is up. In the classroom, the image of a hot stove top is often used, which is tapped on. 14th

15 THE TERMS EXERCISES À LA BARRE Petit battement small punch The petit battement is a small, striking movement of the foot of the free leg. The foot is wrapped around the free leg when it is put on, i.e. sur le cou-de-pied or in the unusual cou-de-pied in front or behind. When performing the petit battement, the thigh remains turned outwards and does not move, or as little as possible. The knee joint is relaxed and the lower leg opens sideways enough for the foot to flap backwards (derrière) before it opens again and is brought back to the starting position. The foot opens up to vertically below the free leg knee. Tip: It is best to practice the petit battement slowly and in a controlled manner so that the leg really opens to the side and does not swing forwards. Then you try to gradually increase the pace until you can perform the movement really quickly. Plié sequence of exercises on the bar knees bend The plié is one of the most important and most common movements in dance. Not only jumps but also many turns begin and end with a plié. The plié is an elementary part of dance technique and can be found everywhere. You can do it in all foot positions outwards and also in parallel. With the demi-plié, the knees only bend so far that the heels can stay on the ground. In a grand plié, the knees are fully bent. This means that in the 1st, 4th and 3rd or 5th position, the heels loosen slightly from the floor. In the 2nd position the heels stay on the ground even in the grand-plié, but the flexion is greater than in the demi-plié. The sequence of exercises on the bar is traditionally similar all over the world: after warming up, you always start with plié, tendu, jeté. Sometimes tendu or jeté is combined with soutenu, or often eté piqué is also added to the jeté. Then it continues with rond de jambe á terre, fondu, frappé. Often it is frappé first and then fondu. It depends on the teacher and the school. Fondu is often combined with rond de jambe en l air. This is followed by petit battement, which is often already practiced with frappé, then développé / relevé lent, grand battement and a stretch - jambe sur la barre or something similar. Of course there are different teaching methods and schools and each teacher always adapts the order to the ability and needs of the students. There is a big difference between teaching a children's ballet class and being a ballet master in a ballet company. Nevertheless you will find the most important basic exercises in every ballet exercise. 15th

16 EXERCISES À LA BARRE Relevé / Élevé lifted up, pulled up In relevé, one presses half or the whole point with stretched legs. Note: Some teachers differentiate between élevé and relevé: with élevé you rise and fall with your legs straight. Relevé begins and ends in plié. The most common is the term relevé for both variants. The relevé is possible in all positions and also on just one leg. In the fifth position, depending on the style, the feet and legs are drawn together and closed or left open immediately after the elevation. If a balance follows, the feet are usually closed in all styles. Élevés strengthen the ankles in preparation for relevés, for jumps, for training in pointe shoes and they train the body awareness for well-placed balances, which you can e.g. needs for turns. Lift relevant lent slowly The leg leads with the leg / knee extended through half the point to the tendu (front, side or back) and from there it lifts into the air and leads back to the starting position on the same path (1st, 3rd). or 5th position). Rond de jambe circle of the leg A rond de jambe is a circular movement of the leg that can be performed both en dehors and en dedans. Both legs are fully extended and the movement is continuous. This means that even when working with an accent, the leg does not stop in any position, but continues to move. The rond de jambe is a movement that encourages maximum outward rotation and develops and strengthens control of the free leg and the supporting leg. Rond de jambe à terre - circle of the leg on the floor With the rond de jambe à terre, the toe of the circling leg remains in contact with the floor. The circular movement can begin in the first position or from a tendu position and is performed with the foot extended. When the leg passes the first position, the heel is lowered to the floor. It is exactly the same sequence of movements as with a tendu: the tendu front, back, side is connected with a semicircle. Demi grand rond de jambe en l air - half a large circle of the leg in the air Here the leg is in the air during the circular movement, but only describes a quarter of a circle. So e.g. from the front (devant) to the side (à la seconde) or from the side to the back (derrière or endedans) 16

17 EXERCISES À LA BARRE Rond de jambe Grand rond de jambe en l air - large circle of the leg in the air In this case, the circular movement takes place from the front, to the back or from the back to the front with the leg in the air. So we have half a circle. As a rule, the leg remains constant at a height of 90 degrees. Depending on the announcement, it can also be deeper, e.g. run at a height of 45 degrees. Rond de jambe en l air - circle of the leg in the air A rond de jambe en l air is a circular movement of the lower leg, in which the leg begins and ends when lifted to the side. With the rond de jambe en l air en dehors at 45 degrees, the toes of the free leg foot follow a straight line to the standing leg and almost touch the calf, then with the heel first and a small circular movement from the knee the free leg en dehors back to full extension bring to. At 90 degrees the standing leg is almost touched at the knee, at over 90 degrees as the starting position there is no longer any contact with the free leg. This movement is also carried out en dedans, but with the difference that the leg is led over the front and starting with the circular movement to the standing leg and then stretched outwards again via the straight line. The knee is a twisting hinge and has a minimal ability to turn when bent and only when bent. This is used for the rond de jambe en l air.It requires a strong control of the outward rotation and stability in the standing leg in order to be able to perform this movement in a healthy and correct manner. Double rond de jambe en l air - double circle of the leg in the air Here the sequence of movements is exactly like a rond de jambe en l air, but with the difference that two circles are performed one after the other and only then does the free leg fully stretch again . Grand rond de jambe jeté - large, thrown circle of the leg The grand rond de jambe jeté is a movement with swing, the accent of which is at the top at the highest point. En dehors, the movement begins with a low attitude devant (front) that is slightly open. It's like turning a first position into an attitude devant. Then the leg is swung to a high à la seconde (leg to the side) position and from there into a tendu derrière (back). In dedans it starts with a low attitude derrière (back), goes over a high à la seconde position and ends in tendu devant (front). 17th

18 EXERCISES À LA BARRE Soutenu tense A soutenu - or petit dévelopé á terre, or pas de cheval can look different, depending on how advanced you are. For beginners, it means performing a tendu while bending the knee of the standing leg into the demi-plié. When closing, a 5th position follows - either on the entire sole or on relevé - while at the same time stretching the knee of the standing leg. When you are more advanced, the soutenu begins with a cou-de-pied. The leg is then stretched outwards with energy in the desired direction to 45% en l air and then placed plié (sometimes also stretched) on the floor with the support leg at the same time. In the American system, this movement is also called pas de cheval. It is very accentuated towards the outside, starting with the cou-de-pied. It is an excellent exercise for articulating the foot. Soutenu en tournant A turn that is used on the bar to change sides. One then begins with a sus-sous or with the described movement of the soutenu. (battement) Tendu stretched A battement tendu, regardless of whether to the front (devant), to the side (à la seconde) or to the back (derrière), always describes the opening and closing of the stretched leg on the floor (à terre). The foot develops through half the tip until it is fully extended. The tendu can be performed from the first or third / fifth position as well as in parallel (especially in jazz and modern). The speed of execution and the accentuation can also vary. It is important that the supporting leg also works actively. Especially when you are standing away, your supporting leg has to keep the outward rotation to the same extent as your free leg. One tries not to sit in the pelvis, but to make the side of the standing leg very long and activate the center. Care should be taken to ensure that the line from the center of the kneecap between the talons and along the foot between the second and third toes is straight. So the knee has to look over the toes. Only then do you work with the best possible away and thus remain healthy for the body. The foot performing the tendu tries to articulate very consciously and to wipe the floor with light pressure. All small bones and tendons and muscles want to work and be moved - as consciously as possible. Tendus strengthen the use of the foot and use all foot and leg muscles. They are also an important basis for any type of footwork. It trains the awareness of how the foot works in dance and builds important muscles. 18th

19 BALLET TERMS AU MILIEU also used on the pole. Falling a Tombé Tombé is a shift in weight onto the bent leg. The dancer falls from one leg to the other. With a tombé pas de bourré, a tombé is combined with a pas de bourrée. The tombé is often used as a preparation for a rotation, for example tour dégagé across the diagonal. In the case of a tombé coupé assemblé, the tombé is immediately followed by a coupé, which then leads on to the jumped assemblé. Piercing piqué (posé) It has become so common that piqué is used as an abbreviation for all possible movements that involve climbing onto a stretched leg. If you step on a straight leg to half or full point, it is called piqué. In English ballet, the exact same movement is called posé. As a rule, in all styles an attempt is made to pull the piqué, i.e. the leg that touches down, as far forward (or to the side) as possible. So you don't want to rise to half the point under the body, but move the body forward (or to the side) with the movement. Let's go over the most important movements that you should know about piqué together. Basically: The toe of the extended free leg sticks into the ground and becomes a supporting leg. Piqué arabesque: The piqué arabesque is a very typical example of stepping onto a stretched leg halfway up the point. The foot pulls far forward and you push yourself in one piece as quickly as possible with the weight over the supporting leg in an arabesque. The same can of course be practiced in other poses such as attitude and others. Piqué as a short tap on the floor - also called pointé: The short tap of the stretched foot on the floor - e.g. in combination with a jeté - is called piqué or pointé. The foot immediately rises back into the air and the emphasis is up. In the classroom, the image of a hot stove top is often used, which is tapped on. Cut the coupé One leg cuts the ground away from under the other foot, thereby changing the supporting leg. The coupé always initiates a change of leg. The leg that executes the coupé is placed in the 5th position in front of or backwards to the other leg, and thus becomes a supporting leg. At the same time, the other leg moves out of the 5th position and becomes a free leg. 19th

20 BALLET TERMS AU MILIEU also used on the pole. Marché running, marching e.g. battement tendu marché tendus à la seconde are alternately executed on the right and left and closed at the back in the 5th position. Because of this continuous repetition, the tendus move a little from place, one marches backwards. The same is of course also possible forwards or with jeté or grand battement. Fouetté whipped until foamy A fouetté is a fully coordinated movement in which the body turns away from the free leg with a twisting movement of the supporting leg. You can imagine that the foot of your free leg is stuck in a lock like a key and has to stay exactly where it is: the key turns, but it stays in the lock. So the movement mainly happens in your standing leg and upper body. For example, the movement begins with a tendu à la seconde while the arms are held in the second position. The body then rotates a quarter turn away from the standing leg in a first arabesque. The free leg is now behind the body (derrière). A fouetté can be a quarter turn or a half turn. In English ballet, only the turning movement of the supporting leg away from the free leg is called fouetté. If the movement goes to the free leg, this is called rotation. In our school, both directions are called fouetté. The fouetté demands incredibly strong control from the core of the body. Above all, the back and abdominal muscles have to work very consciously during the turning movement. The weight is securely placed over the standing leg so the heel can lift to perform the turn. The fouetté can also be called a jump (fouetté sauté - see jumps) or a rotation (fouetté en tournant - see turns). Contretemps counter-tempo, push-pull connecting step to change direction or to initiate a step. Temps lié connected time The weight is slowly shifted from one leg to the other. The temps lié is a connecting movement with a shift in weight and a coordinated use of arms, legs and head or the whole body. It can be performed in different orientations and poses, both à terre (on the ground) and en l air (in the air). 20th

21 BALLET TERMS AU MILIEU also used on the pole. Pas de bourrée Bourrée step There are many different ways of performing a pas de bourrée. The differences are how you go into the step (what precedes the step), how you put your feet and in which directions in space. What all the variants have in common is that there are basically 3 steps involved in foot positioning 5. Position-2. Position (or 4th position) - Follow 5th position. An example: With the tombé pas de bourré, the pas de bourrée is preceded by a tombé, with the chassé pas de bourrée a chassé etc. Glissade grinding step - from one leg to the other glissade is a sliding connection step, but not a real jump! It leads from the 5th to the 5th foot position, just above the ground. It can be exchanged or exchanged. Either à la seconde or éfface or croisé through the 4th position. Balancé Wiegeschritt The balancé is a lyrical terre-à-terre movement in a waltz rhythm with an emphasis on the first step. The dancer begins with one standing leg bent, while the other leg extends to the second position with a slight sliding movement. Then the initial supporting leg is brought into the cou-de-pied derrière for a moment before the ball of the foot takes on weight and this is shifted back onto the new supporting leg en fondu. So you can say: the course of the movement is low, high, deep. The balancé can also be executed in other variants, for example low high high. After the transfer through the second position to cou-de-pied derrière, one rises to half the point in the fifth position. The front leg can be lifted briefly to the cou-de-pied and then closes back to the fifth position on the half-point. Alternatively, the front leg can lengthen to dégagé devant and then close to half point in the fifth position. The new balance then begins with a tombé. The balancé can be performed back and forth (de côté), back and forth (en avant and en arrière) or rotated (en tournant). Balancé en tournant In this case, one turns during the balancé. You can do a quarter or half turn per step. 21

22 BALLET TERMS AU MILIEU also used on the pole. Pas de valse waltz step The pas de valse - waltz step - is performed like the balancé in 3/4 time and consists of three steps each. During the first step, the second leg either drags forward through the plié in the first position to initiate the second step, or the foot is brought forward with a petit développé (i.e. at the level of the cou-de-pied). The first step goes deep through a demi-plié, the following two steps rise to half the point. After a pas de valse en avant has been performed, a second pas de valse initiates the rotation. The first two steps each make a half turn, the third step is straight ahead. So you can do several pas de valse one after the other. With every step the legs overtake each other - do not close in the 5th position - so that the step takes up ground. Pas de basque Basque step In the pas de basque you start in the plié in the 5th position and first grind the free leg into the croisé devant until you are stretched. Then the free leg describes a rond de jambe, the weight changes with a small jump from one leg to the other and you drag through the 1st pos into the tendu croisé derrière position on the other side. The change through the first position can also be carried out with a petit dévelopé passé. Promenade walk A promenade is a movement of the heel of the standing leg, which moves in small sections forwards - en dedans - or backwards - en dehors. During the promenade, the free leg is fixed in one pose or moves from one pose to another. ROTATIONS TOUR or PIROUETTE (Tour) Chaîné chain Chaîné is a rotation in the first position halfway up, which is usually performed several times in a row. A turn consists of two half turns, in which the first position remains fixed at half point and the weight is shifted from one foot to the other. Each shift is a half-turn in the same direction, moving away from the square through the room. There are usually two ways to start the chaîné: e.g. of a fondu in dégagé devant with a quarter round to the side and a step on half the point (piqué / posé). You can also start with a chassé over the second position. 22nd

23 ROTATIONS TOUR or PIROUETTE Fouetté en tournant Pas de basque en tournant Fouetté as a twist = Fouetté en tournant The fouetté en tournant is a famous twist. The dancer stands on one leg and whips the other to turn the body around itself once. In Swan Lake there are even 32 turns in a row. The standing leg bends and extends during each turn. So this is not about a twist in the hip like e.g. with fouetté sauté, but a movement in the lower leg of the free leg. There are different ways of performing a fouetté en tournant and also different preparation options. That means the accent is halfway up with the leg à la seconde (to the side). The free leg can move out of the croisé - then the lower leg makes a small round when it is returned to the passé / retiré - or it can be opened directly over the front - go straight in and out. The pas de basque en tournant - also called soutenu en tournant en suite - are two small steps in the 5th on the half point, followed by a turn, where you - quickly - change your feet. The 2nd leg is placed very quickly in the 5th position, so that you almost jump a little into the 5th. (Tour) Pierce piqué This twist is available both en dedans and en dehors. En dedans is the variant that you will practice first. The twisted version en dedans is called tour piqué - piqué turn, piqué en dedans or in English ballet posé pirouette en dedans. The rotation moves forward and is often done diagonally - sometimes en manège. The tour piqué is a rotation on one leg (standing leg), while the free leg is placed outwards in the passé behind. Your starting position is usually croisé and you start with one foot in the tendu in front of you, arms in the petit pose. Then you open the free leg laterally (ecarté) and at the same time carry your arm with you. Meanwhile, the supporting leg sinks into the plié, so that one can push off this leg into a high passé - on half or full point with pointe shoes. As soon as half the point of the foot of the standing leg touches the ground, the rotation through 360 degrees begins en dedans. It ends with a coupé lingerie in the dégagé devant. The free leg foot slides down along the leg, absorbs weight and bends, while the other leg is stretched forward and is thus back in the starting position. The arms assist the rotation by starting in the petite pose. From there, the leading arm with the quarter round de jambe opens into the second position. During the rotation, the arms close in the first position and open again in the petit pose for coupé lingerie. 23