How was the phone changed

phone

Telephone switchboard Berggasse No. 35, built 1897-1898 according to plans by Franz von Neumann. The tower structure was dismantled in 1945.
Image name Telephone central Berggasse.jpg
Caption Telephone switchboard Berggasse No. 35, built 1897-1898 according to plans by Franz von Neumann. The tower structure was dismantled in 1945.
Image source Vienna library in the town hall, D 76617: The architect: November 1905, [p. 49]
Image rights

(Beginnings). The first telephone systems were set up by the Vienna Private Telegraph Company on the basis of a license issued by the Ministry of Commerce on June 3, 1881 for the Vienna area; On December 1, 1881, the first telephone exchange in Austria was opened in Vienna. The telephone goes back to the patenting of the "Bellschen Sprechtelegraphen" (1876) (Bellweg); in December 1877, engineer Franz Nissl presented a telephone that he had recreated in collaboration with two assistants from the Technical University to an invited professors Connection to the central network as well as the mere connection of two establishments (for example between office and factory). From April 18, 1882, the public in the premises of the stock exchange had access to the first public intercom (a "voice card" cost 20 Kreuzer). On January 1, 1890, all telephone networks owned by private companies were nationalized, with the exception of the Vienna network, which was not taken over by the state until 1895. Towards the end of the 19th century, two telephone exchanges were built in Vienna: one at 6, Dreihufeisengasse (Lehárgasse) 7 (based on plans by Eugen Faßbaender, 1897-1899), the other 9, Berggasse 35, corner of Hahngasse 4 (based on plans by Franz von Neumann, 1897/1898). A subscriber could only be reached via the switching office (where the connection was established via the flap cabinet by inserting a plug). Robert Jentzsch received a patent for a payphone on February 8, 1899. A telephone machine company founded by him and the license granted to him by the Ministry of Commerce in 1901 paved the way for the introduction of telephone machines. However, it was only his colleague and successor, St. Bergmann, who was able to implement the introduction of public telephone machines in their own telephone booths freely set up on streets and squares, thus making Vienna a role model for Europe. After the First World War, the automation of the telephone network began, starting with semi-automatic (the operator dialed using a dial so that connections could also be made with participants who were not connected to this control center) up to fully automatic (dialing by the participant, initially, however only in local traffic [for long-distance calls the operator of the long-distance office at Schillerplatz had to be used]). Since there were already more than 100,000 participants in Vienna in 1928, it was decided to use a combination of a letter (I, F, A, B, R, U, M, L, Y, Z; I corresponded to the one at that time) when assigning the numbers on the dial leading number O, Z corresponded to number 9) and five digits to dial.

In 1955 Vienna had 19 telephone exchanges with dialing facilities, around 1,700 payphones and 151,877 subscribers. The police emergency number, today Tel. 133, then had the number A-0-22. The combinations of letters and numbers were a specific Viennese peculiarity that had to be abandoned in the course of internationalization around 1957/1958, whereby the number discs had to be changed [instead of 0-9 now 1-0]).

In the years after 2000, due to the proliferation of cell phones ("cell phones"), many phone booths were dismantled. Quite a few telephone subscribers can now only be reached via the mobile network and no longer via the so-called wired landline network. The spread of the Internet (Vienna's city administration's first website in the 1990s) has caused traditional telephony to stagnate in Vienna.

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literature

  • Christine Kainz: 100 years of telephony in Austria. In: Post Office Management's post-stamp treatise on the occasion of the appearance of Austrian postage stamps, May 7th, 1981
  • Otto Freude: Introduction of the Austrian digital telephone system. In: Post Office Management's post-stamp treatise on the occasion of the appearance of Austrian postage stamps on January 23, 1986
  • Ferdinand Lettmayer [ed.]: Vienna around the middle of the XX. Century - a cross section through landscape, history, social and technical facilities, economic and political position and through cultural life. Vienna: 1958, p. 767 ff., P. 769, p. 770 ff.
  • Friedrich Achleitner: Austrian architecture in the 20th century. A guide. Volume 3/1: Vienna. 1.-12. District. Salzburg: Residenz-Verlag 1990, p. 309
  • Technical guide through Vienna. Edited by the Austrian Association of Engineers and Architects. Edited by Martin Paul. Vienna: Gerlach & Wiedling 1910, p. 111 ff.
  • Renate Wagner-Rieger [ed.]: The Ringstrasse. Image of an era. The expansion of the Inner City of Vienna under Emperor Franz Joseph. 11 volumes. Wiesbaden: Steiner 1969-1981, Volume 4, p. 581 f.
  • Ernest Blaschek [ed.]: Mariahilf then and now. Vienna [among others]: Gerlach & Wiedling 1926 (Wiener Heimatbücher), p. 291 f.
  • Telephone exchanges: Friedrich Achleitner: Austrian architecture in the 20th century. A guide. Volume 3/1: Vienna. 1.-12. District. Salzburg: Residenz-Verlag 1990, p. 185, p. 235, p. 309
  • Otto Drischel: Post and Telecommunications. In: 100 Years in the Service of the Economy 2 (1961)
  • Kurt Lukner and others: The full automation of the Austrian telephone network. 1972