Has meditation decreased anyone's concentration?
What the media are saying about Transcendental Meditation
TM doesn't just mean extra-
ordinary personal experience, but also research at the highest level
Today anyone can do research and thereby prove what they want to prove. In science, however, there are 4 criteria that define the reliability of scientific research. Research on Transcendental Meditation tends to do very well on all four factors:
1. Quality of the research itself
2. Confirmation of results by several independent researchers
3. Publication in a scientific journal
Quality and reproducibility
The Effects of TM: Little has been researched in such depth
In the past 40 years, more than 600 studies carried out at over 250 universities and research institutes in 35 countries worldwide (list of universities) have confirmed the positive effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique in many areas of life. This means that many of the effects have been confirmed by a large number of independent studies around the world. In many cases, meta-analyzes were carried out which calculated the average results of many different studies. If these meta-analyzes still show a positive effect, then the examined effect is considered to be much more reliable. Such meta-analyzes were carried out on the effect of TM on high blood pressure (9 TM studies), addiction (19 TM studies), anxiety (35 TM studies) and self-actualization (18 TM studies). In each case, the effect of TM was significantly greater than any other method of personality development studied: up to eight times greater.
The general trend across these 600 studies also shows:
- Studies of TM that are of higher quality and follow more stringent scientific standards tend to show even stronger positive effects of TM.
- Studies by researchers who themselves Not Practicing TM have similar or even more meaningful results than those studies that have been carried out by scientists who are in some way connected to TM or its organizations.
- The effects of TM were not dependent on the expectations of the test subjects. It's not a placebo. Expectation effects (placebo effect) have declined sharply over time. The positive effects of TM, on the other hand, increase with the duration of the test series.
Peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals
TM in research: over 350 reviewers
verified publications (peer review)
Trade journals play a very important role in science. They act as a kind of filter to protect research from studies of inferior quality. In general, a study is only taken seriously by the scientific world if it has been published in such a journal.
Before a journal accepts a research paper for publication, the research project goes through a process of peer review by independent colleagues. This means that the work is carefully checked by other experts from the same research area and that they express their opinion on whether the research meets all standards and is of sufficiently high quality. The more respected the journal, the more thorough this process is because its reputation depends on what it publishes.
Research on the technique of Transcendental Meditation has been published in over 350 different publications (list of publications) through more than 160 different journals around the world, including in almost all of the most respected journals (list of journals). That is an extraordinarily high number of publications on a single topic.
Studies on TM are showing results the significance (p-value) of which is often much higher than necessary
In physics, it is generally easy to define cause and effect. In the human sciences, on the other hand, this is much more difficult because people cannot be quantified and are also exposed to a great many different influences. Therefore, the "probability" - the statistical calculation of the possibility that the result was coincidental rather than causal - is decisive for the reliability of the results. In general, the so-called "p-value" is considered to be just as important, if not more important, than the effect itself.
That sounds logical. If a scientist gives someone a drug and claims that it would make them happier and if they actually feel a little happier the next day, then you can't be sure whether the drug really was the cause. Maybe he got a raise, maybe he fell in love, maybe it was a placebo effect. But if we give the drug to 100 test subjects, and if all 100 test subjects feel a little happier on average (matching effect), then the likelihood that it was a coincidence is much smaller. If we then find that all 100 test persons feel happier than ever before (= great effect), we can say with a very high probability that it was not a coincidence.
It is the scientific norm that researchers must be at least 95% certain that a hypothesis confirmation was not accidental. This is stated as p <0.05, which means: the probability of a coincidence or measurement error is less than 5 percent. The more consistent (= more reliable) and the stronger the effect, the lower the chance that it was a coincidence - and the smaller the p-value.
In ancient traditions, transcending is described as follows:
- the highest human experience
- significant for development as a person
This experience had been forgotten for centuries. The technique of transcending (meditation) has been misunderstood and misinterpreted.
Transcendental Meditation is the ancient, rediscovered, extremely effective method of transcending the ancient yoga system. It serves the development of the full human and spiritual potential, and its effects on the individual and society are enormous.
The unusually small p-values that many studies on the effects of TM show are up to 1 million times smaller (= better) than the prescribed norm (p <0.001 to p <0.000000001). That seems to confirm: their effects are real, and they are extraordinary.
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