What are Low Sperm Count Symptoms

Azoospermia and General Male Infertility

Symptoms and Diagnosis

The main symptom of male infertility is the inability to conceive a child. However, in some cases, an underlying problem such as an inherited disorder, hormonal imbalance, dilated veins around the testicles, or a condition that is blocking the passage of sperm can cause signs and symptoms.

These may include problems with sexual function (difficulty ejaculating and / or maintaining an erection), pain and swelling in the testicle area, recurrent respiratory infections and reduced hair on the face or body, or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality.

There are several causes of male infertility, and it can occur to varying degrees.

Semen production

Male infertility can be caused by problems with semen production. Azoospermia is classified as a man with undetectable sperm content in semen; it occurs in 1% of the male population and is the cause of up to 20% of infertility in couples. There are other forms of infertility that affect sperm density to a lesser extent, as well as infertility caused by abnormal sperm motility (making it harder for the sperm to swim to the egg) and sperm morphology (meaning that the Sperm cells are abnormally shaped and cannot fertilize the egg).

Testicular problems

There are also testicular problems that can lead to male infertility. For example, some men have non-descended testicles or testicles that have been affected by surgery, trauma, cancer, or congenital defects. Sometimes the small tubes in the testicles are blocked so that the sperm cannot get into the ejaculate.

Hormonal problems

When there is a hormone imbalance or low testosterone levels, it can affect male fertility. Hormonal imbalances have a variety of causes such as drugs, congenital disorders or tumors.

Ejaculation problems

Some men experience ejaculation problems, such as premature ejaculation (when the ejaculation happens too quickly) and retrograde ejaculation (when the semen is ejaculated into the bladder).


The semen is produced every 3 months, so lifestyle can have a huge impact on semen quality. Alcohol, cigarettes, and illegal drug use can affect sperm quality.

Choosing the right treatment for you

We have experience treating male infertility in our clinic, generally through ICSI or sperm donation. Your suitability for any of these treatment methods can be assessed with a semen analysis and a scan for your partner. We also work with our Urologist who we can be referred to in extremely complex cases or in cases where sperm aspiration is required.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a laboratory technique that involves injecting a single sperm into the egg instead of leaving it in the shell for spontaneous fertilization. This means that in men with low sperm counts or sperm with abnormal morphology / mobility, a healthy-looking sperm can be selected and injected directly into the egg to aid in fertilization.

We also run a successful sperm donation process which enables couples / single women to find a suitable donor from our in-house sperm bank. This includes a meeting with our donation coordinator, who will bring you together with one of our donors. Alternatively, if you wish, we can also facilitate treatment with donor sperm acquired elsewhere.

If you would like further information, please contact our specialist advisors