What is markup in web development

Web development: programming languages, libraries and frameworks for beginners

To create websites and applications, web developers work with languages, libraries and frameworks. You should be familiar with these languages ​​if you want to work as a web developer. - Let's look at these languages ​​in detail, as well as some other tools that web developers use in their daily work.

What are programming languages?

In the world of web development, languages ​​are the building blocks that programmers use to develop websites, applications, and software. There are different types of languages: programming languages, markup languages, sytlesheet languages, and database languages.

Different programming languages

A programming language is essentially a set of instructions and commands that direct the computer to produce a particular output. Programmers use so-called "high-level" programming languages ​​to write source code. High-level languages ​​use logical words and symbols so that they are easy for humans to read and understand. High level languages ​​can be classified as either compiled or interpreted languages.

C ++ and Java, for example, are compiled high-level languages; they are initially stored in a text-based format that can be understood by human programmers, but not by computers. In order for the computer to execute the source code, it must be converted to a low level language (i.e. machine code). Compiled languages ​​are typically used to create software applications.

Interpreted languages ​​such as Perl and PHP do not need to be compiled; instead, the source code written in these languages ​​can be passed through an interpreter (a program that reads the code and then executes it). Interpreted languages ​​are generally used for the execution of scripts, e.g. for generating content for dynamic websites.

"Low-level languages" are those that can be recognized and executed directly by the hardware; they do not have to be interpreted or translated. Machine language and assembly language are common examples of low-level languages.

The most popular programming languages ​​in general include Java, C, C ++, Python, C #, JavaScript, PHP, Ruby and Perl.

Markup languages

Markup languages ​​are used to determine the formatting of a text file. In other words, a markup language tells the software that is displaying the text how to format the text. Markup languages ​​are fully readable to the human eye, they contain jargon, but the markup tags are not visible in the final output.

The two most popular markup languages ​​are HTML and XML. HTML stands for "Hyper Text Markup Language" and is used to create websites. When added to a plain text document, HTML tags describe how that document should be displayed by a web browser. To understand how HTML works, let's take the example of the bold tags: the HTML version would be written like this:

<b>Kaufen Sie unsere Zitronen!<b>
When the browser reads this, it knows that this sentence needs to be bolded.

This is what the user will see in the end: Buy our lemons!

XML stands for "Extensilbe Markup Language". It is a markup language that is very similar to HMTL. However, while HTML was only developed to represent data with an emphasis on its purpose, XML is only used to store and transport data. In contrast to HTML, XML tags are not predefined; rather, they are created by the author of the document. The purpose of XML is to simplify the sharing and transport of data, platform switching and data availability, since XML enables a software and hardware-independent means of storing, transporting and sharing data.

Style sheet languages

A stylesheet is basically a format template and specifies the layout without the content. Style sheet languages ​​are literally used to format and edit documents written in markup languages.

Take a document that is written in HTML and formatted in CSS (Cascading Style Sheets, a style sheet language). The HTML is responsible for the content and structure of the website, while CSS determines how this content should be presented. CSS can be used to add colors, change fonts, add backgrounds and frames, and design forms. CSS is also used to optimize websites for responsive design and to ensure that they adapt their layout to the device on which the user is accessing them.

Databases languages

Languages ​​are used not only for creating websites, software, and applications, but also for creating and managing databases.

Databases are used to store large amounts of data. For example, the Spotify app uses databases to store music files as well as data about the user's listening preferences. Likewise, social media applications such as Instagram use databases to store user profile information. Whenever a user updates their profile in any way, the associated database of the application is also updated.

Databases are not designed to understand the same languages ​​in which applications are programmed. It is therefore important that you understand a language: like SQL, the standard language for accessing the database and manipulating relevant databases. SQL stands for "Structured Query Language". It has its own markup and basically enables the programmer to work with the data stored in a database system and to call it up.

What are libraries and frameworks?

Web developers work with libraries and frameworks. Despite much confusion, although they both serve to make things easier for the developer, they are not the same.

Libraries and frameworks are essentially pre-built codes, but libraries are smaller and are more likely to be used for more specific use cases. A library contains a collection of useful data that is grouped for later reuse. The purpose of a library is to allow developers to achieve the same end goal while writing less code to get there.

For example, let's take fragments of JavaScript (the language) and jQuery (a JavaScript library). - Instead of writing ten lines of code in JavaScript, the developer can use the compressed, pre-formulated version from the jQuery library. - It saves time and effort.

A framework contains ready-made components and tools that enable the developer to write code faster. Many frameworks also contain libraries. It gives the developer a structure to work with and the framework will largely dictate the way you build your website or application. Some popular frameworks are Bootstrap, Mails, and Angular.

The easiest way to understand libraries and frameworks is to imagine that you are building a house: The framework provides the foundation and structure, as well as instructions or guidelines for performing certain tasks. For example, suppose you want to install an oven in your new home: you can buy the individual components and build the oven from scratch, or you can pick a ready-made oven from the store. - Just like building a website, you can rewrite the code, or you can use pre-written code from a library and just paste it in.


In order to gain a foothold in web development, you should bring a lot of patience and diligence. First of all, it is important to learn and master the three programming languages, regardless of whether you want to work in front-end or back-end development. The most common languages ​​are CSS, HTML and JavaScript.