What is fractal light theory

physics

introduction

The field of physics has long been subdivided into the sections mechanics, acoustics, heat, electricity, magnetism and optics, to which the teaching of the nature and structure of matter, atomic and nuclear physics, which is in the foreground of research today, has been added. The further the knowledge progressed, the more it became clear that the boundaries between these areas were drawn formally, even arbitrarily. Acoustics and warmth found their meaning in mechanical ideas, optics and electromagnetism merged into a unified area, thermal radiation and light were recognized as being of the same nature. Great principles such as the energy principle, the validity of which was initially recognized in a very narrow sub-area, grew beyond their original limits with advancing knowledge and gained their position, which encompasses the entire field of physics, indeed the entire natural sciences.

1. Mechanics of the mass points

The simplest part of mechanics deals with cases in which one can disregard the expansion of the bodies and regard them as points with mass, mass points.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

2. Mechanics of the Rigid Body

In order to understand this chapter, it is essential to be absolutely confident in handling the vector product.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

3. Mechanics of deformable bodies

The individual parts of a macroscopic body can be moved relative to one another. Depending on the type of body and the deformation, this requires different forces. We differentiate between deformations that only change the shape of the body but not its volume (shears, bends, twists) and those that also change its volume (compressions, dilatations). Solid bodies defend themselves against both types of deformation and return to their original shape when the stress ceases: They are elastic in terms of shape and volume. Only when the stress exceeds certain limits does plastic flow begin, which ultimately leads to breakage. Liquids have a specific volume, but not a specific shape. Accordingly, only the change in volume requires forces. Volume elasticity prevails within wide limits: When the load is released after compression, the initial volume is restored. A pure change in shape, e.g. a shear, only requires forces if it is to be carried out quickly (internal friction; see Section 3.3.2). Gases fill every available space, so they have no elasticity in form, but a certain volume elasticity, but are much more compressible than solid and liquid bodies. Solids and liquids are often grouped together as condensed, liquids and gases as fluid bodies. In the case of amorphous substances, the boundary between solid and liquid becomes blurred: tar and glass break under high stress, but flow under the influence of much smaller forces, albeit slowly.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

4. Vibrations and waves

“Everything vibrates”, Heraclitus could have said with almost as much justification. Particles that are bound to a position of equilibrium sit in a potential minimum. With a smooth function, however, the area around the minimum can always be approximated by a parabola: W = W0+ ax2, which corresponds to an elastic force F = −dW / dx = −2ax, and under such a force a particle even oscillates harmonically, sinusoidally. This is why harmonic vibrations are so important physically. Mathematically, too, they form the basic building blocks from which more complicated waveforms can be built.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

5. warmth

The whole theory of heat can be summed up in one sentence: Heat is the disordered movement of molecules.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

6. Electricity

At the beginning of this chapter we would like to answer the question “What is electricity?” With just as brief a key phrase as in the case of heat. Unfortunately that doesn't work: While the theory of heat can be seamlessly integrated into the mechanics, the electrical charge is definitely a thing in itself; Alongside mechanics, electrodynamics is the second, independent pillar of classical physics. That does not prevent there being many cross-connections between these pillars. In atomic physics, both seemed to grow together in a triumphal arch, until it became clear that both pillars, if they were to support the atomic world, had to be thoroughly rebuilt, namely to quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

7. Electrodynamics

We assume that we know what electrical charges are. They can be realized by electrons or other charged elementary particles, but also by larger particles. We also know that there are regions of space where forces act on such charges. First of all, we are talking about forces that are independent of the state of motion of the particles.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

8. Free electrons and ions

Electrons and ions in a vacuum or in semiconductors dominate our modern life almost more than the electrons in metal wires. They glow in gas discharge lamps, heat in the microwave oven, entertain us on the radio and television, think for us in the computer, not to mention the countless electronic measuring and control devices in the house, laboratory and factory, from the glow lamp of the voltage tester to the oscilloscope to the giant accelerators; today they reveal new layers of depth in the structure of matter, which gas discharges began to penetrate almost a hundred years ago.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

9. Geometric optics

The ancient Greeks argued not only about whether they thought with the diaphragm or with what, but also whether light emanates from things or whether our eyes emit rays that somehow sense things. With the first view, Empedocles of Agrigento was in the minority against Aristotle, Plato, even Euclid. Only the great Arab ophthalmologist Ibn al Haitam (Alhazen) seems to have made it clear around the year 1000 that visible things emit light, i.e. H. shine themselves or reflect strange light.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

10. Wave optics

That light is a wave was only recognized much later than with sound. First of all, this was due to the much shorter wavelength. The sound goes "around the corner" without further ado, light only does this with tiny openings. Second, the lack of coherence between the usual light sources makes interference phenomena rare and difficult to observe. With a sound source, e.g. in musical instruments, all parts vibrate i. generally with the same frequency and in the same phase, which of all light sources is only the case with lasers. The typical wave properties of light therefore do not play such an obvious role in everyday life as z. B. in the water waves, and many results of the interference optics hit the everyday intuition almost in the face.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

11. Radiant energy

Since our eyes only perceive a tiny section (one octave) from the gigantic range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and this too with very unequal sensitivity, a strict distinction must be made between the physical quantities that characterize the electromagnetic radiation field and the quantities of photometry in the narrower sense affecting physiological perception. The second point of view is of course decisive for all questions of practical lighting technology.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

12. The atom

The classical theory of light, especially in its most perfect form as the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of electromagnetic waves and their interaction with the atomic charge systems, had described an immense abundance of optical phenomena with admirable precision. Refraction and dispersion, scattering, the whole variety of polarization phenomena up to the Faraday and Kerr effects, optical activity and, a little later, the finest details of the propagation of radio waves - all of this could essentially be made understandable by classical light theory. This theory failed for the first time when it set out to explain the emission and absorption of light. The simplest emission should be through single atoms. Why only certain sharp frequencies are emitted here and where they lie remained completely obscure. Isolated approaches, such as Thomson's atomic model (Section 12.3.1), explained the existence of the spectral lines, but gave completely wrong values ​​for their position. For a large number of mutually influencing emitting particles, such as e.g. B. in the hot solid, especially in the "black", the situation seemed surprisingly more favorable: A continuous spectrum followed at least some rules of classical physics, such as Wien's law of displacement and Stefan-Boltzmann's law. The overall form of the spectral energy distribution, however, eluded the classical description, the more precisely it was measured.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

13. Nuclei and elementary particles

Atoms and molecules are not compact structures, but predominantly "empty like space". Heinrich Hertz (1891) and Philipp Lenard (around 1900) showed this. Cathode radiation with an acceleration voltage of around 40 kV easily penetrates through a thin window (F as in Fig. 13.1; e.g. 51 μm aluminum foil) into the outside air and makes it glow as a hemisphere with a radius of a few cm. In Fig. 13.2, the radiation penetrates a part of the tube, where the type of gas and pressure can be set as desired and an anode (A) directly collects the particle flow. It is astonishing that the fast electrons even come through the metal foil with a thickness of a few μm, in which at least about 104 Atomic layers are densely packed one on top of the other. There are just as many in a few millimeters of air, and the electrons even travel a few centimeters there. The effective cross-section of the atoms for the absorption of these electrons is therefore 105times smaller than the geometric cross-section, which e.g. for the free path of slow particles in normal air (10–5 cm) is responsible.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

14. Solid State Physics

Just a few decades ago, nobody really understood anything about what is most important for our practical life, namely the behavior of solid and liquid substances. These things cannot be understood according to classical, non-quantum-theoretical physics.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

15. Relativity theory

Movement is a change of position; Position is always given relative to something. So movement can only be “relative to something”. It took from Copernicus to Einstein to draw the conclusion that neither the earth nor anything else can provide an absolutely stationary reference point.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

16. Nonlinear Dynamics

One can argue whether Omar Chayyám or Laplace formulated the paradigm of determinism more clearly. Laplace still draws the proud and somewhat gruesome conclusion that in principle everything can be predicted, relying on the overwhelming successes of Newtonian mechanics, especially celestial mechanics. The theory of relativity then, in a certain way, even confirmed the Eleatic philosophers, Parmenides and Zeno, who believed that they had exposed every change as an illusion: Whoever could see the world in four dimensions, uno aspectu, as Pierre Abélard said, would only see one state no trial. Thermodynamics and statistical physics contradict this, albeit in a very pessimistic sense: a one-way street of time is given by the increase in entropy, there is still change, but it will one day go out completely. Even after quantum physics, the ψ-function of an isolated system develops in a very predictable way, if this apparently also decides for one of the “innumerable possible worlds” with every interaction, especially with a measuring device, as some believe (the ψ-function of microsystem and measuring device, which of course no one can formulate, would certainly develop in a completely deterministic way).
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

17. Statistical Physics

The parable with which we want to deal first seems to have nothing at all to do with physics, molecules, heat, etc. If you think it through carefully, you still have the entire thermodynamics and statistical physics in your hand - but also the applications of statistics in information theory, molecular genetics and other areas. This is the benefit of the most general conceptual formations possible, but at the price of a certain strain on the capacity for abstraction.
Christian Gerthsen, Helmut Vogel

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