I like the Illuminati brotherhood

Enlightened or Dark Men?

In May 2009, the film adaptation of the Dan Brown bestseller "Illuminati" started in Germany. book1 and film interweave their fictional story with historical half-truths and current world conspiracy myths. The focus is on the Illuminati secret society. What is “Illuminati” about? Nuclear researcher Leonardo Vetra is cruelly murdered in the European Center for Particle Physics in Geneva. Burned into his chest are mysterious characters that Harvard professor and religious iconography expert Robert Langdon identifies as so-called ambigrams - secret messages that an ancient and powerful group of conspirators called the Illuminati use to communicate with one another. Vetra's adopted daughter Vittoria finds out that a container of antimatter has been stolen from the murdered scientist. Apparently, the atomic physicist wanted to use this highly dangerous substance to simulate the Big Bang in the laboratory. In their research, Langdon and Vittoria find themselves drawn into the eternal conflict between faith and science. Centuries later, the Illuminati have returned from oblivion to take revenge on the Catholic Church because "the church's monopoly on truth" has always hindered academic progress worldwide. During the conclave for the election of a new pope, the legendary secret society wants to explode the antimatter in the Vatican and thus destroy the heart of Catholicism.

Who were the Illuminati?

In Dan Brown's novel, the Illuminati were formed around 1500 in Rome from "Italy's brightest minds - physicists, mathematicians and astronomers". Its leading member was Galileo Galilei. Brown stylized the Illuminati as the "most dangerous anti-Christian power on earth" because in the underground the secret society "mixed with other groups, all of which were persecuted by the Catholic Church - mystics, alchemists, occultists, Muslims, Jews". In this way, a deeply anti-Christian brotherhood, a "very powerful, very secret sect" had emerged.

And in reality? An elitist club of naive, harmless do-gooders: Serious historical studies in the “Bund der Illuminati”, which developed in Bavaria in the last quarter of the 18th century, are unable to discern any more. In 1776, the professor of canon law Adam Weishaupt at the University of Ingolstadt set up a student reading group that initially called itself "perfectibilists" - a kind of regulars' table for his best students. This study community should offer its members "protection from Jesuit intrigues and enable them to study contemporary Enlightenment literature undisturbed"2like Montaigne or Rousseau. The Catholic Jesuit Order was in 1773 during the reign of Elector Max III. Joseph had been repealed after he had exercised the monopoly over the Bavarian school system for a long time. But even after 1773 the Jesuits continued to work and retained a position of power - much to the displeasure of Weishaupt, who had "a strong aversion to the content of Jesuit training, but admiration for the effective organization of the Jesuit order"3 felt.

Adam Weishaupt (born 1748) saw himself in the spirit of the Enlightenment as a “liberator of humanity subjugated by superstition and tyranny” and as a “natural opponent and antipode of the Jesuits” in Ingolstadt. Contemporaries describe the son of a university professor as a "pale, apparently tough and stoic, self-contained man who only allowed a few academics to enter"4. The judgment of today's historians is similarly unflattering: Weishaupt was an unworldly, suspicious and intolerant parlor scholar.5 The legal scholar and non-theologian viewed his “perfectibilists” as a kind of secret wisdom league, without the esoteric, pseudo-religious and enthusiastic rituals of the Freemasons and Rosicrucians, in which only young academics are admitted and should devote themselves undisturbed to what “stupidity and priestly self-interest of the public cathedrals ”had banned.

Since Weishaupt felt that he was “severely persecuted by Jesuits and their followers” ​​from an early age, he imposed strict secrecy on the “perfectibilists”: “Silence and mystery are the soul of our order.” He himself gave himself the (camouflage) Order name "Spartacus", after the ancient Roman slave rebel. And he had great goals: It was the task of the order to “unite self-thinking people from all parts of the world, from all classes and religions, without prejudice to their freedom of thought, despite all so different opinions and passions, through a given higher interest in a single bond; such a society is the masterpiece of human reason ”.6

Until 1778, the “perfectibilists” probably only had about ten to twenty members. The loose student union only advanced to become an elite circle of determined enlighteners with the accession of the former Weishaupt student and councilor Franz Xaver von Zwack. This later government president of the Palatinate developed clear objectives and a system of statutes, instructions and degrees that were based on Freemasonry.

That Adam Weishaupt was hardly "the mysterious super-conspirator that the legend has modeled out of him"7, shows, inter alia. the fact that he was seriously considering giving his "Perfectibilist" successor organization the unimpressive name of the "Order of the Bees". In a letter to Zwack, Weishaupt stated: “If you don't mind and don't bother too much, give the order the name of the Order of the Bees or Society of the Bees. Dress the whole statutes in this allegory, v.g. that this degree is the preparatory school, honey-gathering ... Our government is gentle and gentle, like bees, where the queen has the upper hand. "8 Obviously, Zwack's request was by no means “arbitrary”, because the former “perfectibilists” were henceforth called “Illuminati” or “Order of Illuminati” (“enlightened”, in the reading of the order “fighters against darkness”). It was also Zwack who began to systematically infiltrate Masonic lodges for the purpose of recruiting members (the Freemasons had around 27,000 members in Germany at that time). When Freemasonry split up in Germany at the Wilhelmsbad Freemasonry Convention in 1782, the Illuminati Order successfully offered itself as a reservoir for prominent representatives of the German masonry trade. However, the frequently drawn equation of Illuminati and Freemasons is wrong. The Illuminati took over Masonic structures such as B. the high degree system, but in contrast to the Freemasons (who openly admitted that they belonged to a lodge) remained a real secret society. In addition, they explicitly strived for political goals, while Freemauern political discussions were forbidden.

Alongside Franz Xaver von Zwack, the writer and baron Adolf von Knigge shaped the Illuminati and was at times even celebrated as the “second founder of the order”. From 1781 the urbane man of letters, like today's party strategist, redesigned the secret society on the basis of a “reform plan”. After Weishaupt admitted that “the order did not actually exist yet, but only in his head”, Knigge ordered the Illuminati a “new Masonic system”. Similar to the Freemasons, there was now an acceptance ritual for newcomers and different levels and degrees for members (novice, Minervale, Illuminatus maior, etc.). Thanks to Knigge's new concept and his advertising campaigns, the number of members rose to around 700 to 1400.

However, many older and influential personalities reacted quite negatively to the efforts of the Illuminati to recruit, precisely because of the organizational structure of the order. Historians estimate the Illuminati to be at most 2500 "noble, distinguished, learned and important men" (Knigge). But in truth the Illuminati were probably not as “important” as Knigge thought his men were. Rather, historians note an "extraordinarily high proportion of secondary academics" and miss - apart from the famous exceptions Goethe, Knigge and Friedrich Nicolai - "all prominent representatives of the German Late Enlightenment".9 The social base of the Illuminati was mainly drawn from the proto-bourgeois and aristocratic classes with little economic capital. The Münster historian Marian Füssel puts the proportion of scholars in the order at around 45 percent.10

The relationship between Weishaupt and Knigge cooled down very quickly; the break between the despotic Weishaupt and the democratically minded Knigge finally culminated in 1784 when Knigge left. From then on only a year passed until the end of the Illuminati Order. As early as 1784, the Bavarian Elector Karl Theodor had issued a general ban on all “communities, societies and associations” founded without “sovereign confirmation”. In 1785, the Illuminati League was finally banned by an electoral decree. The police were able to confiscate extensive parts of the order's correspondence, so that interested researchers can fall back on a comparatively favorable source of sources today. Adam Weishaupt lost his professorship at Ingolstadt University through another electoral decree. He fled first to Regensburg, then to Gotha, where he wrote numerous justifications and died in 1830.

What did the Illuminati want?

Abolish traditional religious and political authority at the time of princely absolutism - that is the short standard answer most experts give to this question. But the situation is more complicated. Indeed, in Illuminati research there is "considerable disagreement about the political aims and activities of the Order," notes historian W. Daniel Wilson.11 Above all, it is unclear how the secret society actually wanted to achieve the desired social changes: non-violent or subversive?

The so-called Illuminatism was at that time "next to Jacobinism as the epitome of a system that overturns the prevailing social order"12 - and still haunts the current conspiracy literature as a symbol of conspiratorial politics and the development of power. But is this reading of the rather pathetic history of the Order of Illuminati, which lasted less than a decade, tenable? Very probably not: The revolutionary outlook of the "enlightened" apparently did not go beyond an enlightened absolutism. That means: The prince should not be overthrown or even murdered, but only exercise his rule in the spirit of the Enlightenment. A few years after leaving the order, Knigge declared that the aims of the Illuminati had been shared “by ruling and apanaged, powerful and less powerful, spiritual and secular princes ..., by state ministers, councilors in high and lower imperial and other courts, and envoys , Military leaders "- and at the same time mocked the idea that" such men would take part in a shameful conspiracy ".13 In fact, they included Duke Carl August von Weimar and Duke Ernst II of Saxe-Gotha and Altenburg as members of the Order of the Illuminati.

Illuminati founder Weishaupt raved all his life about a "moral regiment", that is, about the moral upbringing of his chosen ones and then of all of humanity. This means, however: The canon lawyer and enlightener did not strive for hard political reforms, but only "morality" (a moral educational process initiated by the Illuminati) should bring about the desired change and the "natural state of freedom and equality deprived by worldly and spiritual despotism of human society "- which is" much more illusory than the Marxian vision, "comments W. Daniel Wilson.14 The abstract utopian goal of the Illuminati was not revolution, but the perfection of the existing system. Weishaupt dreamed of a morally, philosophically and morally trained elite, brought up in strict discipline, which should exercise legitimate rule for the good of the people.15

In addition, the documents received suggest that the secret society, which was always threatened in its existence by the disputes between its founder and the rest of the top management and apparently was often on the verge of collapse, never achieved the shape that the programs and instructions would suggest. "Much of what was described or decreed in the innumerable documents of the order never really seems to have been introduced."16

So what exactly did the Illuminati actually do and achieve? The strategies for changing the absolutist state were largely limited to attempts at reforming pedagogy and filling key institutional positions. As secured z. B. the infiltration of the Reichskammergericht by the Illuminati. At the same time, the secret intelligence club served to accumulate education as well as social and cultural capital. Some historians therefore see the place of the Illuminati order far more in the history of communication and education than in a history of activities that endanger the state.
The bottom line is: “Bookworm Weishaupt and his comrades, utopians in the good as well as in the ridiculous sense, had the pious wish to induce the ruling class to lose power simply by the superiority of their arguments ... Weishaupt rejected every revolution, but pleaded for an evolutionary development from an arbitrary state to the rule of law, from a privilege state to a constitutional state, from princely rule to cosmopolitan republicanism. The challenge to the old forces was of course still too strong even in this tame form. "17

Why was the secret society banned?

It may be that the Illuminati were little more than a quirky couch potato group with arcane discipline and an educational program. And yet: "By being able to articulate a political awareness here outside the absolutist court on the basis of literary and philosophical discussions, the Illuminati League created a medium that helped raise awareness among many German enlighteners before the French Revolution."18 This fact alone might not necessarily have been a reason for the persecution and smashing of the order for the princely authorities - although the arch-Catholic Bavarian elector Karl Theodor did not believe in enlightenment ideas. Rather, historical scholarship sees the fall of the Illuminati in close connection with the state crisis looming in Bavaria in 1784. During a generally reactionary-conservative development, the uncovering of the secret society provided the existing state with the long-sought “proof” of the Enlightenment's hostility to religion and the state - and at the same time the welcome opportunity to treat all supporters of the Enlightenment as political enemies of the system with the Illuminati denounce. Weishaupt's secret society, so their antipodes argued, wanted to infiltrate the courts and oust the princes from the throne in order to take over the world themselves.19 Both the establishment of the Illuminati League in 1776 and its dissolution in 1785 can be regarded as a typical product of the Bavarian conditions at that time. Van Dülmen puts forward three main reasons for the charges against the Illuminati:

1. After the failed reform policy of 1779/80, due to domestic mismanagement and unsuccessful personnel policy, Bavaria faced a crisis which in 1785 led to tax refusal by the state estates.

2. The failure of the reform movement and the rise of reactionary forces that began after 1781 led to widespread anti-enlightenment campaigns even before the abolition of the Illuminati League: magazines were banned, booksellers imprisoned, publicists disciplined.

3. Karl Theodor had made himself extremely unpopular with the people through his chess plans with regard to the so-called Bavarian-Belgian exchange project. The Elector who “traveled” wanted to swap Old Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands (= Belgium). The opponents of the country swap project, who mainly gathered in the patriot party around the Duchess Maria Anna, instrumentalized the Illuminati affair to stir up a mood against Karl Theodor.After the exchange project failed in 1785, the Bavarian Elector himself took over the activation of the ban and the persecution of the Illuminati.
In short: the ban on the Illuminati was “timely”, but says nothing about their actual meaning. Because the Illuminati League apparently made little effort to seriously realize its blooming dreams from ancient philosophy, enlightened ideas and mild megalomania.

Did the Illuminati start the French Revolution?

Four years after the federal ban in Germany, the French Revolution broke out, and since that event the Illuminati have been regarded in relevant circles as a conspiratorial world power that not least brought about the overthrow of 1789. How can this be explained, especially since the secret society no longer existed at that time?

Counter-Enlightenment authors such as the French ex-Jesuit and royalist Abbé Augustin Barruel (“Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire du Jacobinisme”) or the Scottish professor of natural philosophy and conspiracy hunter John Robison (“Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All the Religions and Governments of Europe “) Did not bother in the slightest to differentiate between the more esoterically oriented Freemasons, the political-enlightenment Illuminati and the actually revolutionary Jacobins in France. For example, the propaganda paper “Eudämonia - Journal for Friends of Truth and Law” by the reactionary Viennese publisher Leopold Alois Hoffmann wrote that Illuminatism and Jacobinism not only have the same principles, views and means, and are therefore “fraternized”. Even more: French Jacobinism is “a product of Illuminatism, both are one and the same monster, which only in this country bears this name, in that another name ... The intentions of this hideous covenant are to overturn the altars, to overturn the thrones undermined, to corrupt morality, to throw the social order over heap, briefly to tear down every civil and religious institution and to introduce paganism, murder court and the horrors of a demagogic anarchy. "20 From then on, Jacobinism and Illuminatism became synonymous.

But here, too, the same applies as for the political development that led to the ban on the Illuminati in Germany: “If Illuminatism was identified with Jacobinism in German conservatism from 1789 to 1848, and Illuminatism was seen as a preliminary stage of Jacobinism, then this only happened the awareness that the socio-political upheaval was not a product of social and political grievances, but rather a product of anti-feudal and anti-religious ideas that would have seduced people, ”explains historian and Illuminati researcher Richard van Dülmen.21 "Anti-illuminatism and the anti-Enlightenment attitude are genuine features of the reactionary-conservative politics of the early 19th century and do not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the real structure and function of the Illuminati and the Enlightenment movement." ) Illuminati and Jacobins (e.g. Knigge openly advocated the French Revolution) - Historians are convinced that Illuminatism, which seemed elitist, had nothing in common with Jacobinism, quite apart from the fact that the League of Illuminati itself was never a real political movement.

Another question is interesting in this context: Why did the French Revolution start a real boom of conspiracy theories of the same pattern over and over again? That namely “Freemasons”, “Anarchists”, “Illuminati”, “Jacobins” etc. conspired to destroy the state and church first in France and then in all other countries - up to the delusional idea of ​​the Masonic-Jewish world conspiracy, the still finds its followers today.

There was a strong demand for such interpretations with woodcut-like good-evil schemes, because "the losers and opponents of the revolution, whatever stratum or class they belonged to, demanded an explanation of the new," the professor of modern history at the university analyzes Konstanz Dieter Groh: “The conspirators who had put their long-cherished pernicious plans into practice had to be morally corrupt through and through, because otherwise how could their successes vis-à-vis the state and the church be explained? Against secret, satanic ’- the word appeared several times in contemporary literature - the forces of good, the ancien régime, were apparently powerless as long as their machinations were not seen through. The power of evil ends, however, when one knew its plans and spread this knowledge as widely as possible. So it was a matter of immunizing all strata of the population, from the princes and their advisors to the most remote villages, by means of "enlightenment" against the international coalition of supporters of disbelief, rebellion and anarchy. "22 Continuous social tremors produce stab-in-the-back legends and witch hunts.

Do the Illuminati Still Exist?

Who is responsible for the high gasoline prices? Or for the fact that no more plumbers come into the house on the weekend? Of course the Illuminati - said the author of the bizarre “Illuminatus!” Trilogy, Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), with a wink. And Wilson had to know, after all, he was repeatedly suspected by conspiratorial fans of being one of the leaders of the Illuminati Brotherhood, which has continued from the 18th century to our present day. That the cult author contradicted this both knowledgeably and vehemently - of course, just further proof of the great conspiracy, right? "Of the 39 different theories about the Illuminati contained in 'Illuminatus!', One may be closer to the truth than the other 38," said Wilson. “But my own opinion on this does not seem to hold any more validity than anyone else's. I don't want my readers to swallow my guesses. I want you to think for yourself. "23

Serious questions about the meaning of the completely dubious, but for connoisseurs of the matter enjoyable, highly speculative "Illuminatus!" - trilogy (a cross-genre mix of science fiction, political thriller and modern fairy tale) answered the author reluctantly or with an ironic wink. But at least Wilson had come to the conclusion during his own research for “Illuminatus!” That some of Weishaupt's Illuminati were at most - if at all - still active in various European Masonic lodges until the end of the 18th century. The author doubted that the Illuminati League had taken possession of Freemasonry worldwide in the period afterwards, since "all such claims are made in strange books that have something downright paranoid about them, and this thesis is in no way supported by any recognized authors"24.

The fact is that in 1896 or 1897 the Dresden freemason and occult writer Leopold Engel tried to found the Order of Illuminati and in 1925 even proclaimed the "World Association of Illuminati", which, however, was dissolved by the National Socialists after 1933 and never appeared again . However, this does not challenge self-proclaimed conspirators, which the American journalist and non-fiction author George Johnson (“Architects of Fear - Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia in American Politics”) felt when he tried to get to the bottom of the story of the Illuminati. During a research trip through Southern California, Johnson not only met Christian fundamentalists, who personally consider Lucifer (the "angel of light") to be the first Illuminati and who brought reprints of John Robison's "Proofs of a Conspiracy ..." to the people, but also confused suburbanites for whom all of the world's evils including drugs, crime, venereal diseases, inflation and interest are caused by a numinous entity called the Illuminati.25

In view of this wild hodgepodge of conspiratorial views and convictions about the Illuminati, even the sober journalist George Johnson was for a moment gripped by that emotional impulse which the German historian Dieter Groh calls "the conspiracy-theoretical temptation". Johnson: "The whole material lies in front of you and is just waiting to be brought into all sorts of fantastic shapes like pretzel dough." Johnson resisted the "temptation of conspiracy theory" as well as the serious science of history. According to the sources that have been preserved, there was no longer an actual Illuminati League after 1785. Most of the former Illuminati distanced themselves from the secret society in general. “The societies that emerged after this period are only marginally related to the Illuminati. The time to recruit members with elitist, cosmopolitan goals was over. "26

Powerful myth

What was born after the dissolution of the real Illuminati, however, was the myth of the Illuminati - and this myth is considerably more powerful than the secret society itself. It was, as already mentioned, an indirect product of the French Revolution. "It has been claimed that the Illuminati manipulated the people of France with the aim of destroying the monarchy," explains political scientist Michael Barkun. “Tales of this kind created an alternative to official historiography and also gave rise to the idea of ​​an immensely powerful and cunning secret society whose tentacles stretched across the Atlantic Ocean to America. Towards the end of the 18th century there was already a first wave of fear of the Illuminati in the USA. "27 The foothills of this wave have not ebbed to this day.

At the age of 14, the computer geek Karl Koch (1965-1989) received the book "Illuminatus!" From his father. The Illuminati cult became a kind of religion for the Hanoverian high school student. While Karl delved deeper and deeper into conspiracy theories and worldwide data networks, his friends reacted largely with incomprehension to Robert A. Wilson's confusing parody. Karl then tried to prove to them the existence of the Illuminati, for example by referring to the American dollar bill: In his opinion, the portrait of George Washington was actually the likeness of Adam Weishaupt, and he interpreted the pyramid on the back as a Freemason symbol and evidence for the infiltration of America by the Illuminati. And again and again he came across the "23" - supposedly the magic number of the secret society. After all, Karl Koch was convinced that his mind was being manipulated by the Illuminati and that he had involuntarily become the tool of their machinations. His paranoia eventually drove him to suicide. In 1998, the German director Hans-Christian Schmid staged the feature film "23 - Nothing is as it seems" as an absurdly gloomy game with numbers and symbols, based on the authentic story. Alongside Dan Brown's “Illuminati” and Wilson's “Illuminatus!” “23” is probably the most popular example of the strange fascination that continues to emanate from the “enlightened” to this day. But what predestines the Illuminati of all people for the role of the mysterious and eternally evil dark men?

One reason for this is certainly the sonorous name alone: ​​One can probably assume that an "order of bees" - as Adam Weishaupt originally wanted to call his scholars' association - would have had a far less inspiring effect on the imagination. And so the Illuminati become multimedia in books, films (Tomb Raider, Matrix), card, role and computer games (Deus Ex, GURPS Illuminati) for such diverse phenomena as “anarchism, fascism, Sufism, extraterrestrial manipulation, sea snakes and even for "The story of the Illuminati and the conspiracies they instigated provide those who have lost their mental equilibrium with a hunting ground in which they can let off steam." "28

Apparently the Illuminati will provide a welcome screen for collective fears into the 21st century. They owe their world career as "virtual conspirators" above all to the fact that they can be used by anyone for any purpose. “The advantage of an open, not precisely defined term like 'The Illuminati' is that it can be filled with any meaning,” says the political scientist Barkun: “You can make the Illuminati either fanatical anti-Catholics or fanatical Catholics ... The term 'Illuminati' is so vague that it could be associated with almost any group without fear of encountering opposition or criticism. "29


Remarks

1 Dan Brown, Illuminati, Bergisch Gladbach 2003 (Angels and Demons, 2000).
2 Jan Rachold, The Illuminati. Sources and texts on the Enlightenment ideology of the Illuminati Order, Berlin 1984.
3 Thomas Grüter, Freemasons, Illuminati and other conspirators - How conspiracy theories work, Frankfurt a. M. 2006.
4 Richard van Dülmen, The Illuminati Secret Society. Presentation, analysis, documentation, Stuttgart 1975.
5 Jürgen Roth / Kay Sokolowsky, The dagger in a robe. Plots and delusions from two thousand years, Hamburg 1999.
6 T. Grüter, Freemasons, Illuminati and other conspirators, op.
7 J. Roth / K. Sokolowsky, The Dagger in the Garment, op.
8 Reinhard Markner, The Correspondence of the Illuminati Order 1776-1781, Tübingen 2005.
9 Marion Füssel, Weishaupts Gespenster or Illuminati.org revisited. For the history, structure and legend of the Illuminati Order, www.uni-muen-ster.de/PeaCon/conspiracy/Weishaupt.htm.
10 Ibid.
11 W. Daniel Wilson, Privy Councilors Against Secret Societies. An unknown chapter in the classical-romantic history of Weimar, Stuttgart 1991.
12 R. van Dülmen, The Illuminati Secret Society, op.
13 Adolph Freiherr von Knigge, On Freemasons, Illuminati and Real Friends of Truth, Wiesbaden 2008.
14 W. D. Wilson, Privy Councilors Against Secret Societies, op.
15 T. Grüter, Freemasons, Illuminati and other conspirators, op.
16 W. D. Wilson, Privy Councilors Against Secret Societies, op.
17 J. Roth / K. Sokolowsky, The Dagger in the Garment, op.
18 R. van Dülmen, The Illuminati Secret Society, op.
19 See T. Grüter, Freemasons, Illuminati and other conspirators, op.
20 Max Braubach, Die "Eudämonia" (1795-1798). A contribution to German journalism in the age of enlightenment and revolution, in:Historical yearbook 47(1927), 309-339.
21 R. van Dülmen, The Illuminati Secret Society, op.
22 Dieter Groh, Conspiracies and No End, in: Karl Markus Michel, / Tilman Spengler (ed.), Course Book 124, Conspiracy Theories, Berlin 1996.
23 Robert Anton Wilson, “The happy live in a happy universe, the sad in a sad one”, in: Dan Burstein (ed.), The secret brotherhood. Dan Brown's "Illuminati" decrypted, Munich 2005.
24 Ibid.
25 George Johnson, On the trail of the Illuminati, in: D. Burstein (ed.), The secret brotherhood, op.
26 R. van Dülmen, The Illuminati Secret Society, op.
27 Michael Barkun, On the attempt to create a new world order, in: D. Burstein (ed.), The secret brotherhood, op.
28 R. A. Wilson, "The happy live in a happy universe ...", op.
29 M. Barkun, On the attempt to create a new world order, op.


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Markner, Reinhard et al., The Correspondence of the Illuminati Order 1776-1781, Tübingen 2005
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