How do I learn metalworking

Basics of metal chemistry

Properties of metals

Metals have played an important role in people's lives for a very long time. They are present in a high proportion in the earth's crust. No wonder, because a large part of the well-known elements are Metals.

in the Periodic table of the elements they are in the I. and II. main group, in the subgroups and in the lower periods of the IV. to VI. Main group. However, most metals are not found in nature in their pure form. They are tied in connections that Minerals or Ores.

Because of your properties Metals have long been coveted raw materials. The first thing you'll probably think of is that metallic luster and the high strength of many metals.

But they have other great idiosyncrasies that don't catch the eye immediately. There are, for example, the good ones Thermal and electrical conductivity. In addition, metals are easy to work and work with malleable and usually own one high melting point.

Use of metals

Modern civilization could hardly be without that Use of metals get along. They surround us every day. So the construction industry uses masses of Reinforced concreteto build stable, tall buildings. For this purpose, steel reinforcement is placed in the concrete and more concrete is poured over it. This gives the structure strength and flexibility at the same time.

Today's shipbuilding is also based on that Metal iron. Without the large-scale production of steel from iron, the ships would still have to be made of wood and could never have reached the dimensions of giant tankers.

The good electric conductivity is used for wires. Many of the cables in use today are off copper manufactured. They can be used to transport electricity over greater distances.

Metallic objects from ancient times have been found, which shows that humans have had the ability to manufacture metals in their pure form for a very long time. Tools, everyday objects such as bowls or combs were made from them. Due to the high strength of the metals, however, they are also suitable as raw materials for weapons and armor. But jewelry can also be made from them.

Metal fabrication

The most important metal of humans is that iron. Entire branches of industry have sprung up around this metal. The dismantling and processing gave rise to cities and metropolitan areas. The Iron making runs in the blast furnace process. The iron ore is reacted with carbon in a tall furnace with different temperature zones.

Another important metal is that aluminum. It is obtained in a completely different way, through the Fusion electrolysis. The aluminum salt is melted and a voltage is applied. The aluminum ions in the melt migrate to the negative pole (cathode) and are deposited there as elemental aluminum. Generally, base metals must be used reduced in other words, they have to absorb electrons so that they are available in pure form.

Precious metals on the other hand, one finds it directly in elemental form in nature. This makes it possible to purify small nuggets in an area with gold deposits Gold found in rivers.

Metal bond

But what does it look like inside the metals? The metals are made by the so-called Metal bond held together. There are those External electrons of the metal atoms are not firmly bound to these, but form an electron gas in which they are freely distributed throughout the solid. The atoms are due to the lack of external electrons as Nuclear hulls (positive ions).

With the help of this model of metal bonding, many properties of metals can be explained. The good electric conductivity is based on the freely moving electrons. They can carry the electric current through the whole metal. The high strength is explained by the electrostatic interaction between the positive metal ions and the negatively charged electrons. The shine is based on the interaction of the freely moving electrons with light.