Examples of control systems
Control engineering examples
A simple example of control technology is toilet flushing. This is shown in the following Java applet. If you cannot see the applet, you have to allow blocked content or activate Java. If someone needs an example of regulations in their PowerPoint presentation or Open Office Express, they are welcome to use one of my examples. You can film part of the screen with Microsoft Expression Encoder 3. A file can be generated from this, for example: klospuelung.wmv This video file can be integrated into a presentation: example.zip. The kinked blue beam represents the inflow to the container. The container fills continuously. If the water level is so high that the float (red) is raised, the float rises and the shut-off valve (red) lowers. The water tank is full. The flush can now be activated.
The regulator is the rod that turns. It is a proportional controller with an operating point. The actuator is a proportional valve that limits the flow of water. The container is the integrating controlled system. The float is the measuring system. The example from the sanitary sector is not intended to suggest that cybernetics is sanitary technology.
Control engineering was explained abstractly during the course. I want to do it differently. In frontal lessons on the blackboard, mainly formulas could be used. I want to do that better and describe parts of the control engineering with the help of animations.
First, I would like to explain the difference between control technology and control technology. The example for a level control is compared with an example for a level control.
|In this example the light intensity is kept constant. The rotating heads or slides of lamps are known. If the lighting conditions outside change, you have to turn up the light or if it is too bright and dazzles, turn it off. This is done by hand in the first example. In the second example it is automated. Now for light control.|
|A good example of a regulation is the iron as a 2-point regulator|
An example of a level control
Then a linear system is compared with a non-linear system.
Control loop elements
In the following some control loop elements are presented and controlled with test functions.
When comparing linear and non-linear systems, it was shown that the law of superposition applies to linear systems and not to non-linear systems. In the following applet the law of superposition is used for a PT1 system. In the section Frequency components of test functions, the square-wave signal was shown as a superposition of various sinusoidal signals. The system keyword of the Sinuse was in the following applet
One idea of what a desired regulation could look like is the account regulation. An account balance that is hopefully always positive. A non-technical example to show some control-related relationships.
|Sauna as a continuous regulator|
An unstable interest rate system
An economic control loop.
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