Do you like single engine piston airplanes?
A unique document from the category "for official use" with a description of the device and the functioning of the Messerschmitt-262 Messerschmitt-262, which at that time in the world in the world in the world in the world in the world of military aircraft in the world . In the last months of the war, Hitler and Göring's hopes were on a fracture in the "Air War" in connection with this aircraft, in which Reich suffered one defeat after another. However, the tests and mass production of the ME-262 began too late due to the short-sightedness of the leadership of the Luftzewaffe of Ernst Blaadd and the deputy George von Erhard Milch. The document was developed by the team of the so-called "Bureau of the New Technology" of the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR in 1946. Each copy of this document had its own registration number - in our case number 233. A similar document published by the same office was devoted to the fuselage and aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft (there are none in our collection). Original, the condition corresponds to the age. Full version The document is in.
The German fighter ME-262 Many specialists consider one of the best military aircraft that took part in the Second World War. If the leaders of the Third Reich assessed his abilities and combat potential in good time, victory in Europe would get allies at a much more expensive price. The short-sightedness of Hitler, the non-professionalism of the Luftwaffe commander German Ring, turned bureaucratic wires this first in the history of the air war, the jet fighter in a kind of "Paris" in the replacement of fighter planes. But how unsuccessful and short, as his fate of me-262, the after war history of Jet Aviation, which put in it, so surprising.
Last hope for Fuhrera
This plane has its own mission from this plane. In addition to the Rush-developed German scientists, "Waffen der Vergeltungswaffen" (atomic bomb), Messerschmitt-262 was regarded as the Third Reich's "weapon of redemption" from the overall relationship of the Allies. Influenced by the Imperial Minister of Propaganda, J. Gebbbels, whose opinion was shared by many generals of the German Supreme Command, with their defeats on the fronts Germany, first the unprofessionalism of the armed forces of Herman Ghering, Heaven cannot protect, and the Cities of empire from the destructive nails of Union Aviation. Many believed that in the event that the German Luftwaffe could become the master of the situation in the air, during the war, a decisive fracture, a decisive fracture. And the main hope of that question got arrested with a new reactive knife shmitt.
In Josef Goebbels' notes, which he stabbed throughout the war, the subject of the reactive ME-262 opens constantly, and in the last few weeks the war has sounded like magic in the spell: "In accordance with the presence of gasoline from our weapons program, all types of aircraft except five will be confiscated. The most important attention by the probe's decision is paid to the production of ME-262."<…> "Direct hits with mir-262 simply burst" mosquito ". To knock down such a bomber, four perks are required. For a month of such battles, the Anglo-American opponent should incur such sensitive losses that he has to limit his activity in the air."<…> "Now the Fiihrer has high hopes for reactive fighters. He even calls them" machines of German fate ". He believes that it is possible because of reactive aircraft - at least defensive measures - to undermine the superiority of the enemy in the air."<…> "Now the Fiihrer is placing the highest hopes on new reactive aircraft. This month they will already be made 500, and in the next - 1000. The airfields can build with great difficulty."<…> "Fuhrer ties all his hopes up with this new jet aircraft. The enemy will not be able to oppose anything substantively in the air."…>…>…>…>
All of this is the record from March and April 1945, when the outcome of World War II left no doubt in others. Already in the last days of the war, when the Soviet troops were standing at the walls of Berlin, six commissioners were appointed in Hitler's bet on the implementation of the accelerated production program of ME-262. The program management, which relied on two trustworthy combat generals - Josef Kamchuber, who was responsible for the production of night fighters, and Dietrich Peltz, who was responsible for the publication of Tag. The Third Reich died, but the flight schools had orders for the set of 20 thousand cadets who had to perform in the air on the plane "German Hope".
The German jet fighter "Messerschmitt-262" had a different name - Schwalbe, which means "swallow". Its relevant advantages were already shown in the first battle - July 25, 1944 in the sky over Munich, the new Messerschmitt was almost in Klochye, the English bomber "Moskito". However, the Third Reich did not have enough time to release a sufficient number of "wonder aircraft". And although from 1944 to 1945 the German aircraft was collected and gathered to the front by 1,433 ME-262 jet fighters, which also became the most massive reactive aircraft of World War II, failed to complete its original mission. Perhaps due to the fact that the New Plane's Path to Heaven was surprising, not easy.
Long way to heaven
The idea of creating a fighter jet airplane in Germany was born almost simultaneously with the beginning of the development of a turbojet engine (TRD). It should be noted that in the 1930s the consideration of the creation of a TRD as one of the high-tech end products that the airplane was considered to be the largest. In addition, the idea of arrogant aircraft has been perceived with some skepticism, since the existing aerodynamic pipes did not allow to determine the characteristics of SO high-speed aircraft. For the first time, development of the aircraft began in October 1938 under the designation of the R-1065 after the designation of the R-1065. It was planned to manufacture two R3302 jet engines of 600 kgf. It was expected that with this TRD the fighter could develop the speed of up to 900 km / h. The appearance of the plane was not formed immediately, and its evolution is largely similar to the development of flora and fauna: from simple - to complex. In addition, as the aircraft designers joked, a new airplane might fly "on the obstacle" - that is, it didn't require a special aviation-gasoline-high cleaning. As at the end of the war, when Germany lost access to oil, it turned out to be a major argument in its favor.
Based on the size of the turbojet engine made at the BMW factory, German aircraft designer Willy Messerschmitt approved the first version of the future IM-262. The unusual combination of the fuselage and support surfaces (MU-262 was equipped with the so-called "sweat" wing) was a step towards the integrated layout of the aircraft, which was known to be a great distribution in creating fourth generation combat aircraft . The construction of the aircraft was designed with such a calculation so that every detail was easy to make and could be made at different companies. The large deficit in aluminum alloys forced the designers, to the detriment of the weight of the glider, is widely used in steel and wood design.
Fritz Ventel (right) and aircraft designer Willy Messerschmitt after the test flight. 1935 year.
The first flight of a jet fighter piloted by one of Germany's best pilots took place on March 25, 1942 and almost ended in disaster. The aircraft slowly reached a height of 50 meters, and when the pilot removed the chassis, the left TRD refused and a little later and right refused. The pilot managed to get the car ready and use it successfully on the airfield. This was the result of the poor reliability of the first turbojet engines. In the meantime, however, the Heinkel system JUMO 004 A, which developed 840 kgf traction, was completed in the Heinkel system. These engines were installed on ME-262 and tested further.
A total of three seasoned copies were released and it wasn't a very smooth test. On April 18, 1942, an experienced ME-262 crashed and the pilot died. All of this threatened that the idea of the reactive fighter could refuse, but the situation saved one of the best test pilots, Adolf Galland. He experienced the aircraft extensively in the air and on earth and after a few days he reported that he advised Marshal to "This car is a real smile of fortune! It gives us advantages until the opponents use piston-engine planes. This one." Aircraft opens a new side of combat application. "Galland particularly suggested technical improvements in the design of the fighter, in particular from now on all IU-262 were completed - for the first time in the history of fighter aircraft - catapult seats for emergency evacuation of Pilots in the event of damage to the machine. By the way, by the end of the war, it would save the lives of 70 Luftwaffe pilots whose high-speed fighters were shot down or damaged.
Going yourself became infected with the enthusiasm of pilots. The Luftwaffe quickly lost dominance in the air, and the emergence of a new "Uninstalled" aircraft should have corrected the Geering's reputation itself. However, to convince Hitler that the IM-262 should be the "Miracle Weapon", he did not immediately. Hitler also referred to Goerning and the entire Luftwaffe with such great distrust that he personally wanted to ensure the effectiveness of new technologies. He demanded commitments from engineers, designers and specialists and guaranteed that they could not give. When the Messerschmitt constructor himself arrived with a report on a new plane with a report on a new plane, Hitler attacked him with accusations and did not let words be said. He ordered the attempts to continue on a few more experienced copies, and because of this whim of the Fuhrera preparations for series production of one of the best aircraft of the Second World War, he was imprisoned for almost a year!
Not only the choleric temperament of the German Fuhrera played his role, but also his attitude towards strategic issues. Defense in Hitler's eyes was a secondary business. Where the case concerned the Luftwaffe, he only heard things connected with offensive actions; He was deaf to the needs of Anti-Heart's defense. When, at the end of August 1944, Steiler and Galland personally drew attention to the important need to focus the German fighting power to protect the Reich, Hitler threw them with shouts that they should obey his orders. The Göring never moved against Hitler, but only handed over the case of the destructive orders to the Fuhrera. In relation to the well-deserved pilots, he sometimes behaved and offended at all. At one of the meetings, Goering began to argue that the German fighter pilots received too many awards that they did not deserve. Present at the meeting, Galland, to have heard it, turned pale, threw a knightly cross with himself, and threw the Reich Minister on the table with a noise. There was no ice, but it heated up without any consequences. At the end of the war, Galland, who in essence, was essentially one of the creators of the fighter jet fighter aircraft was sent to Italy with a chemless indication not to return to Germany until the end of the war. He survived, and in 1953 he wrote memoirs detailing the history of the creation of the ME-262.
Battle of doomed.
In the meantime the situation on the fronts was rapidly deteriorating, and in November 1943 NAZI leaders remembered the "Wonder Plain" again. Its construction hurried the weapons program and gave emergencies to organize early production. Göring personally visited Messerschmitt facilities to familiarize himself with the progress of work on the ME-262. Right, one more clue on the way: Hitler offered to target the ME-262 to the jet bomber, which would require a complete design change, hang bomber sights and suspension for airbabellen. It could slow down the production of the aircraft for a long time, as the jet fighter was not at all suitable for target bombing, according to its flight data and a review from the cabin.
And a few weeks later, the German aviation industry suffered a major catastrophe: In February 1944, Allied aviation led to German aviation facilities to German aviation facilities (the so-called "Big Week" operation). As a result, more than 100 MA-262 aircraft were destroyed in the factories in Augsburg and Regensburg, many technicians and workers were killed. The production of jet aircraft was urgently transferred to the depths of Germany, in Leipheim, and there, however, on April 24th the final assembly workshop was destroyed by a strong daytime challenge from the American bomber ...
The jet "Mährts" became the troops only in the autumn of 1944. The first squadron of reactive fighters was ordered to form a new one from the best German ass that had come down to shoot planes and was one of the most important pilots of Reich fighters. In Avgorodka, near Osnabruck, Achmer began creating the first division of jet fighters, which was named "7th Fighter Squadron" (JG-7). No freshly selected pilots to his squadron personally and they manned the best Asymirectuent Asami, who had air force at the time. The "Bombers-Bombers-Jäger" of the Bombers "Bombers" had to be seized on the western front, which suffered particularly from Allied aviation raids. The pilots found that the ME-262 is considerably lighter than the Luftwaffe's main fighter, the Messerschmitt-109 (Gustav) to control. The ME-262 was worse than accelerating, but diving could easily exceed the speed limit. In addition, the jet fighter flew quite well on one engine, while its speed reached 450-500 km / h. The duration of the flight at an altitude of 7000 meters reached 2.25 hours. The fighter's weapon consisted of four 30-mm MK-108A-3 cannons with a 100-cartridge ammunition for the upper guns and 80 - for the lower one. The choice of such weapons produced that the plane should fight the enemy bomber and something with fighters was discussed. According to the German historian K. Boekker, "With this armament the Squadron pilots JG-7 for the last week of February 1945 destroyed 45 four-dimensional bombers and 15 accompanying their fighters." On March 17, while listening to the B-17s bombed Rwanda , SICK and Cottbus, pulled out several ME-262s from the III group. In this fight, the sergeant's bonfire knocked down two "flying fortresses", and Ober-Lieutenant Veggmann and Ober-Feldwebel Gobel - one.
Most of the time I-262 fought in the west, but there were clashes and with Soviet pilots. The first battles between the Soviet aircraft and ME-262 demonstrated the vulnerability of Soviet cars to the reactive German. In late February 1945, Soviet pilots were even given a special order to open fire on ME-262 without waiting for approach for approach of 600 meters. Some Soviet assas - for example, the famous Ivan Kozhevubu and Evgeny Savitsky - managed to knock the Messerschmittu-262. Alexander Pokshinin also confronted me-262, but he couldn't knock him down. It so happened that the Soviet pilot was able to knock down the ME-262, but he didn't believe the order. This is how it came about with Major Okolov's fighter-fighter, who was shot in the last days of April 1945 in the highway of the BResho Berlin Messerschmitt-262 autobahn. A launch plane fell in a hard-to-reach area, and the order just didn't believe the Soviet pilot. Only after many years did he manage to prove his case - and then thanks to the memoirs of the English pilot who witnessed this battle and wrote about him in his memoirs. The British Soviet Command believed.
Soviet pilot, commander of 518 fighter aviation regiment Yakov Okolov many years after the war, waiting for the confirmation of his victory over me - 262
A great advantage that jet fighters had over machines with a piston engine was best shown on April 7, 1945. On this day, which is active according to the plan "Wehrwolf" (werewolf), its attacks are not aimed at bombers as usual, but against the escort of the fighters who accompany them. With no significant losses, JG-7 reported twenty-eight enemy fighters knocked out. On the same day, the same day, the same day R-51 "Mustang" created a deadly hunt for the German Messerschmitts-109 and Fockey Wulf-190. In a US Air Corps military diary, the United States is referred to the loss of at least 133 German aircraft and the deaths of seventy-seven pilots.
It was the last great aerial battle in the sky in Europe.A few days later, the M-262 pilots in Prague had to be relocated to the airfield, very far for active participation in hostilities. Yes, and the courage and persistence of individual pilots could no longer prevent the military defeat of Hitler's Germany. This ended the combat story of me-262. The German jet fighter was developed before the war, which was ignored and almost banned by Germany's highest military leader, the German jet fighter a bright symbol of German ingenuity even in times of crisis, although its influence on the outcome of the war was insignificant. A significant portion of the built-in ME-262 died in the Anglo-American aviation raids, many of them unable to climb the skies.
Falcon versus swallow
Of course, in the Kremlin they knew that the Germans had a jet fighter and were waiting for the fall to get at least one copy of this miracle of German engineering. In the USSR, in general, generally treated the achievements of the Germans in military aviation technology, as in Germany - the features of the Soviet tanks. The rivalry between the Russian and German pilots began in the years of World War I (see poster) and continued through the years of Spanish confrontation (see a note). Perhaps in Spain it was the pride of the Soviet military aircraft that was dealt the most sensitive blow. Despite the incredible efforts of the USSR, German aviation fell back to the Spanish skies as a demonstration of its power completely wiped out the Spanish city of Gernik. And this despite the fact that the USSR did not interfere at the expense, tried to bring their aviation to the fighting in Spain. Nowadays, few people know that Cuevas del Canelobre, which has become a tourist attraction for the city of Alicante, was used as a hangar for the assembly and protection of the Soviet Polycarpov multi-purpose shack (known in the West as 2) in 1936. Worked on equipping this natural cave, filling concrete, making a huge tunnel (employee and to this day the entrance to the cave), as well as laying almost three kilometers of the Soviet-occupied mountain road military specialists less than a year.
Today is that episode of the war in Spain unless experts know. In Canelobra Cave there is not a single pointer to what happened here during the Civil War. Yes, and in the USSR itself about the war in Spain, I tried again not to remember. Only occasionally - and even then in the unknowingly - in the Soviet press, have materials been published on this subject, as was submitted to the figure below - where Polycarpov's planes are depicted in the skies of Spain.
However, there was a Soviet pilot and another tooth against Germans Asov. The fact is that in the 20s and 30s, many of them bypassed the terms of the Versailles Agreement, studied in the USSR, and even graduated from the highest military schools: the future head of the headquarters of the Supreme Command Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Field Marshal Walter Model, Field Marshal Walter background BRAWUKHICH, General Manstein, Cruz, Horn, FILD, adutant Hitler from the Air Force Colonel Nicholas von Belov and many others. A future developer of military aviation Luftwaffe aircraft design Hugo Junkers at the end of the 20s also lived in Moscow, where he was in the design office of Andrei Tupolev. And although many of them do not have the idea of war from the USSR in their soul, they all applied their experience in war while training in the USSR. So, in Nicholas' memoirs, Belov's is a curious dialogue held back between him and Hitler in 1939 when the Führer asked his Adutanta what experience he came from studying in the USSR. In response, Belov's background said that one day one day German pilots wielded a training bomb in the Lipetsk region (where they studied at the local secret aviation school). One of the bombs broke into the field where the local boy horses were rampant. Children and horses died, but the Soviet authorities only use the German order for horses. Not a word was said about the dead children. From this case, Belov's background made the conclusion shared with Hitler: "In war the Russians will not take people into account ..."
German cadets are the future aces of World War II in a flying school near Lipetsk. Photo by d. sobolev
Of course, such a betrayal of the German pilots of the Soviet military did not add love. It is known that in many parts of German pilots they were not even captured alive. The technical superiority of the German aircraft, which was established at the beginning of the war, was already aligned with its center. New Soviet fighters, as well as Soviet tanks, were not inferior, and in many ways even surpassed enemy. And then it either takes the ME-262, almost hitchable for Soviet planes. There was an urgent need to study a new car - but it was necessary to get it somewhere. Such an opportunity was only introduced in April 1945. Then Ober-Feldwebel Helmut Lennartz from the 7th Fighter Squadron had to make an emergency landing in the territory in Soviet troops. At the same time, the engines of his plane received additional damage from the land in them. After that, the car fell to the Soviet troops, it was delivered to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Air Force and repaired under the guidance of the chief engineer - I. G. Barkina. Then she was rewarmed in the colors of Soviet military aviation, the swastika on the tail was replaced with a red star, and the car was transferred to flight tests.
Trophy ME-262 who became a Soviet fighter
A little later, the part of the 16th Air Army was captured by more than 20 reactive fighters ME-262 at the airfields in Oranienburg, Daldow and later and in Berlin Tempelhof. General Savitsky arrived at a trophy jet machine. He climbed into the air on a double fighter, assisted a German twentieth pilot in flight. The aircraft was transported to the Air Force Research Institute, where Soviet specialists familiarized themselves with its design. Our pilots were aware that high speed "disorder" was repeatedly decelerated at high speed, and German pilots were collapsed with the machines, so the candidacy for testing was considered particularly carefully. The first Soviet pilot to be thrown in the air ME-262 was Andrei Kochetkov. September 15, 1945 he began a test flight with a renovated Sumaller. In November 1945 he performed another 17 flights, after which he received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. During the tests, while flying at high speeds, the same unpleasant features were revealed that German specialists had previously faced. While trying to reach the top speed of 870 km / h, the aircraft entered the uncontrolled dive. For the luck of the pilot, it happened at an altitude of 11,000 m and Kochetkov with great difficulty in still saving the car. By the end of the summer of 1945, the Luftwaffe was able to test the JUMO 004 gas turbine on the domestic low-pressure gasoline and on the tractor kerosene, another TRD, BMW 003. For the first time it was possible to determine the traction, fuel consumption, the optimal turnover of most German engines.
In the meantime, Soviet and American specialists conducted the real hunt for military-technical documentation and all possible "know-how" of German industry in the designated areas of Germany. In April 1945, employees of the Army Against Intelligence in Berlin arrested the chief technical advisor to the Jet Aircraft Engineer E. Porouroker. After a few days, the head of the GRU General F. Kuznetsov reported to the Minister of Aviation Industry of the USSR A. Shahurine: "You are very interested in the packaged E. air powder, therefore it is aware of the production of jet engines for aircraft in Germany The twentieth is in Moscow and can be provided by your representative for special consultation. "It was from Puooger that it became known where the technical documentation on ME-262 and other experienced Air Force aircraft was stored. Drawings were sent to special groups who carefully searched the design office in Ceske-Budějovice, Wiener Neustadt and Bergkristall east of Linz. A senior engineer also reported a secret airfield near Prague where around 60 cars are based. Porooker turned out to be a very valuable informant because he spoke about the technical difficulties the Germans faced in which the process of "making sense" of their jet saw "Swallows". He stated that the largest number German Aircraft Industry Publication IM-262 reached in March 1945 and accepted 237 cars from sponsors.
Numerous reports from German pilots, engineers, high-ranking aviation officials fueled interest in the reactive "Soviet Union of Messerschmittu. The captured aircraft were sent to aircraft facilities in Syzran and to the experienced areas of the Air Force NII, where experts carefully examined every node In conclusion, the act of flight test results was noted in particular, specifically what the ME-262 put one into the reactive aircraft, and has a great advantage in maximum horizontal speed ahead of modern domestic and foreign fighter-fighters. The aviation industry deputy addict PV Dementev, after receiving the first results of flight tests of the Trophy fighter, sent a letter to the Chairman of the Chairman of the Councilor of the Commissar GM Malenkov's letter with a proposal to immediately begin mass production of Soviet aircraft based au f me-262. The production of the aircraft was planned in factories No. 381 in Moscow and No. 292 in Saratov. The study of the design of the aircraft, the release of drawings and devices of the aircraft under Soviet equipment and weapons were entrusted to the chief designer of the Minion Fousebrev, and the development of engines is the Klimov designer. Vladimir Mikhailovich Mezishchev, who thoroughly studied the design of the ME-262, who was also noted in his report, "I should note that in response to the Air Force State Committee, this aircraft has a number of operational workshops, such as three Bicycle, cockpit seal, etc., has good handling properties. Makes the possibility of installing very powerful weapons and using them as an attack aircraft, has a double training and the possibility of further increasing the maximum flight speed (up to 900-960 km / h) and the range (up to 1200 km). At the same time, equipping the Air Force with reactive aircraft (in a single and double educational versions) can begin from MID-1946 "
However, the famous aircraft designer Alexander Yakovlev turned out to be a fierce opponent of this idea. In his book "The Goal of Life", he wrote: "At one of the meetings of Stalin, when he was discussing the issues of the aircraft industry, the Commissioner's proposal was accepted by Alexey Shahurin in the series production of the" Messerschmitt -262 "trophy jet Fighter seized by our troops. In the discussion, Stalin asked if I was familiar with this plane and what my opinion was. I replied that I knew the plane of the ME-262, but I disagreed with the start of IT in ours Series because it is a bad airplane that is difficult to manage and difficult to fly, the victim of a catastrophe in Germany. If it goes into our arms, you scare our pilots from reactive aviation. They quickly become their own Experience that this is a dangerous aircraft and that it also has poor running characteristics. I have also noticed that if we copy "Messerschmitt", then all attention and resources are devoted to it r this car will be mobilized and we will cause great damage to domestic reactive aircraft ... "After a later discussion, the proposal to copy the ME-262 was rejected. Although the Soviet history of the German reactive "Messerschmitt" was not over. In preparation for the 1946 November 1946 parade over Red Square, it was proposed to prepare pilots for flights on the first reactive MIG-9 and YAK-15 to use ME-262 at the rate of 5-6 flights each. For the training of pilots, 20 ME-262 aircraft were expected at Airfield 16 of the Air Army in Chkalovskaya. However, this proposal was not passed on: The first Soviet jet fighters, the famous MIG-9, were designed for one pilot, and our pilots would have to be withdrawn from "speaking" German.
The final "point" on the question of copying the German jet planes was made by life itself. On September 17, 1946, the German Messerschmittov-262 crashed during the test flight at CHKALOVSky Airfield near the village of Chiskino in the suburbs near the German Messerschmittov-262, which was testing the ridges under its rubble the pilot ff nademid. From that moment on, the final decision was made - "Germans" don't copy, develop their own. Despite this, M-262 left a deep mark in Soviet aviation. Just talking about it is not accepted.
Indeed, this is one of the thoroughly stupid ones of Soviet Soviet history, how exactly Soviet science, military industrial complex and industry ordered the technical "heritage of the enemy" that we went on the basis of the war. During the battles on the territory of Germany, the region included the Soviet occupational areas in which many aviation companies were concentrated - mostly large aircraft manufacturing concerns such as "Junkers", "Arado", "Heinkel", "Fokke-Wulf", Dornery. Most of the factories have been badly damaged by air bombs, and many have been turned into ruins. We went to the West (as it is considered, not without the help of special Western services) aircraft designers and developers of the new military equipment - Prandtl, Betz, busty, Georgi, Heinkel, Lippisch and others. What went to the winners, however, could have been enough in thoughtful and serious study for many years. Almost simultaneously with the beginning of the battles on the territory of the Third Reich, a Special Scientific and Technical Council (NTS) was created in Moscow immediately after the war, immediately after the war, transformed into the Office of New Technology, whether it was published The document that was submitted to our collection. Professors, scientists, leading scientists whose task it was to "recognize" scientific and technical policy for the advancement of the army and the navy and simply use the recorded military technical and scientific potential of Germany for the maximum of the needs of the Soviet industry Drawings and texts, product samples, descriptions of experiments, scientific literature, delivered to Moscow. Hundreds of translators from German were withdrawn from the beginning and settled in specialists in scientific and technical translation. At the same time, in German itself, it was a dismantling of everything In mid-1946, 123,000 machines and other industrial equipment from Germany were dispatched to the USSR, making it possible to create nine new aviation factories in the Soviet Union, including two aircraft and three engines.
Of course, special attention was paid to the latest weapon samples - reactive planes, missile technology, nuclear projects ... Although Stalin, Voroshilov, weekly before the war, did not believe in the power of new developments in the field of weapons, and contemptuously reacted about missiles, taught the experience of the Get them a lot. In March 1945, when the war was rumbling, the fate of Germany was already resolved, the decision of the State Defense Committee on the export of German factories of documentation and equipment for radar systems for their production in the USSR. Soon the decision of the GKO "on the package of the commission on the removal of equipment and the study of the work of the German missile institute in Petermünde". We are talking about a company in which the German "Miracle Weapon" was created - FAU-1 and FAU-2. Academic Georgii BUCHENT wrote: "After the end of the war in 1945, Tsaga scientists and other aviation experts were able to familiarize themselves with the trophy materials from aviation research at the German DVL Institute in Adlersgof. These materials contain, in addition to the test results in the institute's aerodynamic tubes, a model of certain aircraft, general data. "
Trophy materials Scientist Tsagi - Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, named after N.E. is named. Zhukovsky - not immediately appreciated. However, many specialists at the institute quickly understood the prospects in this direction. Further theoretical and experimental studies were charged with the team of authorizing scientists of the institute.In addition to technical documentation, Soviet experts found unfinished samples of the single-engine jet fighters M-162, three damaged two-dimensional jet fighters for non-280s. Soviet teachings studied hostile developments. Here is a quote from one of the reports: "The development of reactive equipment in Germany assumed a large scale in recent years. Trophy samples of German reactive equipment in the USSR - reactive aircraft (fighters, attack aircraft, bombers), aviation jet gas turbine engines, liquid jet engines produced by radio and unmanaged reactivals ( Long-range and anti-aircraft targets), projectile aircraft, controlled and radio-controlled radio with aircraft-reactive planning bombs - show that the introduction of reactive devices in aviation, the fleet and artillery in Germany was carried out on a large scale, and the Germans in this area had one serious success. "
In order to study the enemy's achievements and the possibility of their use in the USSR, the decision of the government in the summer of 1945 created an integral commission on reactive techniques. In August 1945 bank tests of German jet engines were carried out. In the experimental facility no. 51, the production of clams "10x" began on the type of the German Winged rocket V-1. In the same 1945 an idea arose to use German specialists to develop reactive aviation in the USSR. The narcar of the aviation industry Shahurin appealed to the Central Committee of the WCP (B) with a secret letter. In particular it was said: "A large number of German specialists and scientists in the field of aviation are now in our hands. These scientists and specialists have great knowledge that has accumulated while working in research and experienced organizations in Germany in the USSR or in the German zone, which we have a special type of organization with special regime (under the supervision of the NKVD), in which German scientists can carry out research work - according to our tasks ... ".
This was immediately reported to Stalin and was well received in order to use the "heritage of the enemy" to develop the domestic military industry. The search and registration of German specialists took place in different ways. Some, for example the former head of Junkers' experienced production team, Dr. B. Baada, volunteered to work together to continue working in the aviation industry. The leading specialist in aerodynamics of the company "Heinkel" was also addressed to the Soviet authorities. Many people misplaced mercantile considerations - money and food tolerant. Some scientists, heard by the horrors of the NKVD, were simply afraid to reject it.
Overall, it was possible to attract over thousands of German scientists. They were collected in Berlin, Dessau, Leipzig, Galle, Strasfurt and Rostock. Everyone got a report in the past of the scientific institution and talked about their work. With these materials, Soviet specialists received their résumés and set new tasks in front of the scientists "trophies". The work that has been done has been sent to the aviation industry community, research institutes, and corporations to send a more complete study for use in their future work.
At the end of August 1946, the most valuable and promising German specialists were transported to the USSR. They were about seven thousand. Aircraft builders gathered at the experimental facility No. 1 in the village of Subbezier Kimrsky district on the banks of the Moscow Sea. Specialists in turbojet engines and equipment have been sent to an experienced No. 2 factory located near Kuibyshev. Scientists involved in engines took their jobs near Moscow enterprises - Factory No. 500 in Tushina and No. 456 in Khimki. So far it is definitely unknown who joins the German lessons in the development of Soviet aircraft companies and how many ideas they proposed to their counterparts from the USSR. However, it can be said that the contribution of 7 thousand of the best minds of the German aircraft to the development of the technical, technical landmark of the Soviet military technical thought as very weighty. Perhaps it is precisely these and similarities that have become Russia's most important military trophy. Trophy that will allow the ruined country in a few years to transform itself into world superpowers - with the best aviation and armaments in the world ...
Arado AR 234 "Blitz"
Among the many interesting aviation structures that appeared during World War II, a special place occupies a German aircraft with AR-234 jet engines. Originally developed as a reconnaissance machine, it was used as a bomber and even planned on the role of a night fighter, the assault aircraft and even a missile carrier. It had a significant impact on the designs of the United States, Great Britain, France and the former Soviet Union. With the exception of samples of missile technology, reactive aircraft developed in the Third Reich were the most tied piece for allies - the reactive AR-234 and ME-262 "Schwalbe" were the most wanted prize
The main advantage that new engine installations possessed was the opportunity to give the aircraft an exceptional speed, almost twice that of the modern piston-engine fighters. Of course, such a skill would of course be useful for a fighter plane.
Work on the project, which was given the designation E-370, was suspended due to the implementation of the other two tasks of RLM-Perproat the AR-232 and Fighter AR-240 transport aircraft. Therefore, a technical proposal was crystallized only in September 1941 - in the E-370 / IV sector. It was supposed to be a single reconnaissance aircraft equipped with two BMW P-3302 engines (in the series, which received the designation BMW 003) with an initial weight of reaching 7000 kg. Three fuel tanks in the wings and three in the fuselage, accommodated a total of 4000 liters of fuel. The reconnaissance equipment should consist of two RB 50/30 or RB 75/30 type cameras placed in the back of the fuselage. Defensive weapon was limited to only one submachine gun of Mg 131 caliber 13 mm in the tail, which is so concessional compared to the first proposal for which the aircraft did not have defensive weapons. It was believed that it would be so high enough that it would not need defensive machine guns to protect itself from Allied fighters.
On November 26, 1943, Hitler was supposed to visit the Intlerburg (Insterburg) airfield, where the latest aircraft was exhibited. In addition to the two reactive ME-262, missiles ME-163, the FI-103 flying bomb (V1), as well as a number of prototypes of missile shells, it was decided to show him AR-234 as well. On November 21st, the third prototype was dismantled and transported to the show. Hitler, impressed with the designs drafted, decided that 200 AR-234s should be made by late 1944 by late 1944. In a conversation on this subject, the Fuhrer used the word "lightning" (lightning), which in the future would refer to the aircraft. As in the case of ME-262 "Schwalbe" it is true, it does not remain the official name. The name "Hecht" (Pike) was later used in the official documents.
On August 2, 1944, he carried out the first military intelligence departure of reactive aircraft in history; His pilot was oblpt. Erich Sommer (Erich Sommer). After that, AR-234 V-7 flew until November 1944, then it was written off.
BAHEM VA 349 "Snake"
BA 349, in accordance with the requirements of the German Ministry of Aviation, intended for use as a fighter interceptor opposing Allied bombers, was a relatively primitive fuselage as the emphasis is on ease of manufacture with unskilled workers. The transverse treatment was provided by the height steering. The fuselage was adjusted from the Walter Marsh rocket motor 109-509A-2, which can evolve for 70 with a demand of 16.68 kN, and for long-term flights to use a small thrust mode (1.47 kN). The aircraft consisted of starting vertically with the four solid accelerators with SchMIDDing engines with four solid fuel accelerators on each side of the fuselage 109-533, each of which developed the 11.77 kN craving for 10 s, after which they separated.
The first of 15 prototypes of the aircraft was released in October 1944. It was used for irregular controllability tests and was not touched by the Heinkel 111 aircraft. The first vertical launch, also unmanned, took place on February 23, 1945, also unmanned, with the introduction of the launch and march rocket motors. In almost the only one (at that time) to record a pinartized vertical plane, the lamp in the cabin, which interferes with flight, and the plane hit the ground from a height of 1525 m, the pilot test by Lothar Siebert died.
The tactics of combat "Gadyuki" assumed a vertical decrease in the autopilot and allowed a pilot transition to manual management to occupy a position at a higher altitude than that on which bombers were flying. For shooting with a gentle dive, "Viguka" was equipped with a shot of a part of the nose, which was a block with unmanaged missiles. After the launch of missiles, an empty plane left the combat zone, and the pilot was able to destroy the belts. By moving the handle of the control procedure, the pilot opened the safety latches and then released the mechanical locks and the nose portion was completely separated from the fuselage. The pilot left the plane easily as the tail part of the car was slowed down due to the manufacture of the brake rescue parachute. The tail part should be reused.
VA 349A was the first serial version. Luftwaffe ordered 50 aircraft and safe parts of the CC-150. About 36 "Gadyuk" were made, but no car participated in hostilities, despite the fact that 10 were prepared for takeoff and Kirheim. However, the Allied tanks got too close to the airfield, so the interceptors were destroyed right in the parking lots to avoid detection and use.
VA 349B was an improved modification, had an increased area of the tail plumage and a more powerful Walter rocket motor 109-509C, which developed the maximum shock of 19.62 kN and released it up to 1.96 kN. A total of three planes were made.
FIFER FI 103R "REYECHENBERG"
Fieser FI 103R Reichenberg
FI 103R, created through the general efforts of Fizel and ARGUS companies, is the FZG-76, also known by the notation of FI-103 and V-1 (FA-1) despite poor accuracy and poor reliability , as a terrible weapon. The first outing in the cities of England came as a big surprise and had a strong psychological impact on the British. Soon, however, the British Isles' air defense system was overdone to combat this weapon, and by early September 1944 it had achieved good success in the fight against German clams. The triumph was the day on August 28th when 87 of these machines were identified from 97 FAU-1s. In addition to the perfect organization of the English air defense, there was a relatively low airspeed of the projectile aircraft (about 640 km / h) and the fact that in flight it could only move in a straight trajectory without doing any maneuvers and not trying to um Avoid attacks by the enemy fighter attacks. It is surprising that after the adoption of the V-2 ballistic missile (FAU-2), a question about the feasibility of FAU-1 continued to arise.
Some of them were decided to run non-111 bombers. These bombers were supposed to take positions for the launch of shell planes in directions that are covered by smaller air defense forces and thus ensure a breakthrough of air defense systems. In addition, Hanna Ryach's famous German pilot suggested creating a manned aircraft to combat key surface targets. Such an aircraft hull was supposed to be delivered to the bomb area of the enemy of the Nest-111, after which the projectile aircraft was launched. His pilot should take control of himself, bring the aircraft projectile on the target and turn it over into a parachute.
The command of the SS troops supported this idea by offering the use of a manned aircraft projectile also for the bombardment of the industrial complex Kuibywhev, Chelyabinsk, Magnitogorsk, as well as areas located behind the Urals. The well-known specialist in sabotage Sessers O. Svalzen even gave an order to win and create 250 suicide pilots for these shell planes. As usual in the Third Reich, this "original" idea was aided in the Very High Level And he was given the "Rayhenberg" mark, and Fisherar was given a job to develop a manned aircraft projectile. Thanks to the identified company "Fisoler", the experience of the design of this aircraft and the widespread use of node and FA-1 units, the task was completed within 14 days. At the same time, four modifications of the piloted projectile aircraft were developed, which received the designation FI-103R (Rayhenberg):
Basically, the aircraft of all four modifications had the same design, largely borrowed from FAU-1: a monoplane with a freely wheeled wing, a cigar-like fuselage, and one-sided plumage. Fusion was almost built entirely from low-carbon steel and detachable wings had a wooden design that they mounted to the main butt of steel tubing just before the projectile aircraft was hung under the NO-111 wing. The engine served as a pulsating air jet engine "Argus", which developed traction of about 226 kg at a flight speed of 640 km / h. This engine was a pipe made of low carbon steel 3.48 m long, with a maximum diameter of just over 546 mm. The diameter of the nozzle was 40 cm, the thickness used in its manufacturing steel was 2.5 mm. The weight of the engine did not exceed 163 kg.
At the front end of the pipe, the valve grille for the air inlet was installed, with the petals of the valves, which opened like shutters, are made of carbon steel. In the head of the pipe there were 9 items with a tank with fuel lines. The instant the grid valves opened corresponded exactly to the instant fuel was injected, so the engine duty cycle delivered this way. The fuel was supplied under a pressure of about 6 atm and the ratio of components of the fuel-air mixture was about 1:15.
In early 1946, the EF-126 Light Attack Aircraft was developed by German designers from OKB-1 on behalf of the Soviet administration. In this aircraft, this aircraft had mainly repeated constructive solutions for your analog, and the pilot cabin was located in the front of the fuselage. The armament of the attack aircraft consisted of only two 20 mm weapons. A special catapult was developed for take-off, and landing should be done on the landing ki.
The first flight, EF-126, took place on May 21, 1946. Although that flight ended in a disaster that killed the test pilot, the modified samples flew pretty well. The government commission, convicted as Yakovlev, received the project of the aircraft with negative conclusions: "Weak weak weapons, the lack of armaments and insufficient inventory of combustible stocks make it difficult to use the aircraft" Yu-126 "as a mass attack aircraft." So ended the story of one of the Air Force's few jet aircraft to which very high expectations were restored.
Hakel not 162 "Salamander"
In the fall of 1944, the weakness of the fascist air defense system for the leadership of the Third Reich was evident, the German Ministry of Aviation decided to organize a competition to create a jet fighter, which was planned to be produced in huge quantities - from 1,000 to 5,000 units per month.
Other requirements included easy piloting, easy equipping and making of production. What is interesting - for this reactive fighter, it was decided to apply a tree for wings.
The company "Heinkel" The terms of the competition were on September 8 and on September 24 a group of designers of this company in Vienna, the construction of the non-162 aircraft, which the factory name "Salamander", received. By the beginning of November of the same year, working drawings were ready, and since the drawings were made, the manufacture of knots and aircraft units was made. This made it possible to finish work on an experienced model of the aircraft on December 6, 1944. On the same day, the plane was pulled into the air.
The peculiarity of this jet fighter was also the fact that the engine of this aircraft is located above the fuselage, the car also had a low three-wheel chassis, a rectangular circuit of a double vertical plumage and a V-shaped horizontal fusion. Wood made of wood with a plywood cover 4-5 mm thick. To improve course stability, the end of the wing is curved.Metal flaps are located between the ailerons and the hull. The trunk is a duralumin monocle with amplification at the locations of the cutouts. Nasal fuselage covering in front of a wooden pilot cabin. Horizontal feather metal and vertical wood. The entire plumage together with the tail part of the fuselage can be rotated relative to the transverse horizontal axis at an angle of + 3 ° to -2 ° in order to ensure the longitudinal compensation of the aircraft. The aircraft has a BMW 003E1 turbojet engine.
The fuel inventory is 945 liters, of which 763 liters are in the fuselage tank, installed behind the pilot seat, and 182 liters in two wing tanks. The nose wheel and main chassis are removed into the fuselage. The armament, located in the nasal part of the fuselage on the sides of the pilot's seat, consists of two cannons of 30 mm caliber with a rim of 50 cartridges or two 20 mm caliber cannons with a reserve of 120 ammunition. At the same time, the 30-mm cannons of MK-108 were armed with the first serial modification of non-162A-1, which was released in a relatively small amount. This is explained by the fact that the force of the return of the guns during firing was too great, requiring an increase in the nose of the aircraft.
The second serial modification of the non-162A-2 was equipped with 20-mm guns Mg-151, and at the end of the war there was a modification of the non-162A-3 with an improved nose on which 30 mm The weapon MK- 108 was reinstalled. Flight tests carried out in December 1944 and January 1945 showed that the aircraft has good handling and can develop speed to 885-890 km / h near the earth, and at an altitude of 6000 m to 905 km / h. Considering the fact that with a speed of more than 600 km / hour the opportunity to almost completely exclude the aircraft cabin for the pilot in the event of an accident, the cabin is equipped with a motorized seat, which leads to powder gases from the pyropatron. The manufacture of the non-162 aircraft, bestowed with the official name "Volks Steer" - "Volksjäger" - "Volksjäger" - received a priority in relation to all other weapons issuing programs, it should be done in the amount of 1000 to 5000 units per Month. For this purpose, HAKEL systems have been collaborated with more than 700 companies, who deliver them together and mutually detail, knots and individual main units such as wings, plumage i.t.p.
Each of the companies, which were given strict duties in relation to production, tried to simplify the design of manufactured products and to adopt the adopted technology that was adopted at that company. So in the factory of the company "Gota Waggon Factory", which was charged for the production of one wing of the aircraft, it was found that the existing construction of the wing of the NE-162 aircraft (wooden one-box wing of the usual scheme) turned out to be as time consuming, and the manufacturing cycle is so long that it hinders the implementation of the above release program in as fast as possible. Therefore, a new wing of a monoblock design was designed in this facility. With a brigade of 12 workers established, one set of panels for this wing could produce every 8 minutes. In order to ensure the release of fighters from non-162, and in the conditions of incessant raids by opponents of aviation, most of the companies were located underground.
For example, the assembly system was discovered in the abandoned summit mines in Mödling in the Vienna region, in the workshops in which more than 1000 non-162 fighters were in various prepaid stages. Serial production of non-162 fighters began in January 1945 when the first 6 serial aircraft were manufactured. In total, the parts of the Luftwaffe were submitted to over 120 cars by the end of the war and more than 200 aircraft manufactured were the factory flight tests. However, there is a lack of more or less reliable data on the combat benefits of "folk fighters", but there are reports indicating numerous accidents and catastrophes of these aircraft caused by design flaws and manufacturing errors.
For example, only three weeks from April 13th to the end of World War II, 1st Squadron of 1st Squadron hardened with non-162 aircraft, 13 aircraft and 10 pilots, of which only 3 aircraft were destroyed by the enemy . And the rest of the losses were the result of accidents and disasters. In this squadron for every two days, an accident turned out every two days. However, these data should be considered in the context of the overall collapse of Germany's industry and armed forces as a result of the actual military defeat achieved. If this high-speed fighter appeared at least a year earlier (and such an opportunity was available since the BMW-003 engine was ready in 1941, and the first industrial line of BMW-003A1 engines was ordered in October 1943), then Allium's Aviation It would have to survive many difficult days.
Heinkel he 280.
Applying the accumulated experience, Hanegel Designer created a full-fledged jet combat vehicle. The first sketches of the new aircraft were made by Robert Lusser's technical director at the beginning of June 1939. The aircraft received a preliminary designation not 180 and was designed as a fighter with high speed, good maneuverability and powerful weapons. Planned to install two jet engines. A detailed project study continued for about four months. There were various options of the location of the pilot and the engines. We were meticulous blown models in the aerodynamic tube. After all, the appearance of the aircraft that received the notation at the end is not 280, which was formed by the autumn of 1939, and on September 26, its layout was approved.
The plane was a single averaging with very clean aerodynamic intensities, a straight wing, two placed engines placed under IT and twokill plumage. The chassis provided perspective - three-way with a nose wheel
Due to the fact that both engines of the power plant were supposed to be located under the consoles of the wing, there was enough space in the nose of the fuselage to install the three-plane Mg 151 20-mm caliber with a desired edge of the cartridges for them.
It should be noted that the presence of a hermetic cockpit of the pilot and a catapult seat chair, which ensures the binding of the aircraft at high speeds and altitudes.
When it was necessary to leave the aircraft, the pilot had to open the cabin lamp, put his legs on the footsteps of the seat and turn the levers of the pneumosystem. When the compressed air started, the piston rod moves the seat out of the aircraft cabin. In the air, the pilot had to sweep the belt, free from the seat and reveal the parachute. Comparing this system with developed later later systems dealing with the sopathetron, its great structural complexity and overweighting is observed.
It was necessary to use the catacultable chair with the Ei 280 pilot as early as January 13, 1942, when aircraft handling was lost at an altitude of 2400 m. It was the first in the history of world aviation, the case of a pilot rescue with a catapult.
The flight tests of the aircraft showed that 600 kg of each of the engines developed to reach the maximum airspeed of 820 km / h, but the operational safety of the engines was insufficient. Theirs ended up too much time, and although the Hayunkel Society tried to salvage the HE 280 by installing the BMW 003 and Jumo 004b engines, the German Ministry of Aviation was favored by the Messerschmitt company's ME 262 aircraft. This led to the fact that in March 1943 work on he 280 was discontinued and in the combat operations of the Second World War did not accept the participating aircraft.
HOUSEHOLD HO XVIII-IX
Almost an unknown, two solitary twisted jet plane Go 229 made according to the "fly wing" was perhaps the most eye-catching and unusual fighter aircraft created during World War II. It originated from the belief of the brothers Walter and Reymar Horten that the flying wing is the most effective form of aircraft that is heavier than air. They decided to prove it by building a series of gliders, the first under which I was built in "Horten" in 1931. The brothers began serving the Air Force officials in 1936, but continued their work, and in 1942 they developed a "flying wing" jet fighter.
The first major step was building a simulator to train Luftwaffe pilots, they became the VII who took to the air in 1943. It had double steering and two motors with thrust screws. The brothers kept their plans in secret, and VII (20 cars were ordered, but 18 orders were canceled as a device for aerodynamic research and communication). Meanwhile, the 9th Experimental Brigade of the Brothers has already started creating a reactive two-stage fighter, but IX. None of the projects received official permission from German aviation, but the brothers had good political ties. As soon as Reichsmarschal saw the drawings, he insisted that this future car get into the air as quickly as possible.
The rush work has started on two prototypes with the maximum of the possibilities of a small group of creators. But IX VI was supposed to fly as a glider, subsequently modified for the installation of two BMW 003a turbojet engines. Somewhere in May 1944, in Oranienburg, testing of the glider began and it was extremely easy to use. But IX consisted of a central part and outer panels. The central part was sufficient tank to hold the pilot, engines, weapons, a tricycle chassis, and almost all of the fuel required.
The plane made of steel pipes joined by welding and plywood, with the exception of the engine systems, where the shield was made of aluminum or steel. The welding wing was made entirely of wood, and some units - from the composites, which presented a mixture of wooden chips with rubber glue, crushed under high pressure. The design with 7 times the overload and outperforms almost any other aircraft.
Testing of a fully featured Plan VI assumed production would begin immediately, but so did IX, but the VI broke out in 1944. By May 1944, the aircraft's enormous potential led the officials of the Aviation Ministry to delight, and control of its creation was transferred to God's Fonta Factory, where it was renamed 229.
In addition to VI and V2, seven further prototypes and 20 series fighters were ordered. The latter had to have a wing with a circumference of 16.75 m, two JUMO 004V and a weapon motor that consisted of four 20 mm calibers (Mk 103 or 108).
A simple catapulted chair was installed for the pilot. The Go 229 V-2 test program began in Oranienburg in January 1945. The launch required less than 450 m of strips and the handling was excellent. In early March, when a retractable landing gear was installed and the speed was up to 800 km / h, the plane crashed while entering the landing due to a sudden refusal of one of the engines.
The program has been suspended. The GOTA system in Friedrichs actually seemed to have been completed by the manufacturer of the V-3 prototype, a lot of GO 229 was in different completion of the assembly readiness.
Junkers Ju 287.
Junkers Ju-287V-1 aircraft was an interesting design. He was the first to fly the mid-jet bomber. Desiring to increase the critical number of Mach while breaking the flow at the ends of the wing that has a place in the wings with direct sweep, the wing of the aircraft was granted backward sweatshirt. Work on The Creation of the JU-287 Airplane was launched in the summer of 1943. In order to reduce the time of building a prototype Ju-287V-1 in its design, the main parts of the already tested aircraft were used. In particular, the fuselage of the Heinkel of the NE-177 aircraft, the tail patch of the Junkers Ju-188 aircraft and the chassis of the captured Konvere B-24 aircraft were used. Thus, the aircraft had only one wing installed in the central part of the fuselage, which had a circumference of 20 m, an area of 58.2 m2 and an inverted sweatshirt of 20 °. The aircraft's power supply consisted of four Junker-yumu 004b turbojet engines, each with a load of 900 kg.
In acceptance as accelerators, four Walter 501 liquid jet engines were used, each of which has developed a craving of 1200 kg for 40 seconds. The choice between BMW 003 and JUMO 004, which were required at least six. But really both types of the TRD Ministry of Aviation for fighters. There were two options for installing motors. The first is three engines in a common bundle under the wing, the second - in a pair of the TRD under the wings and in the nose of the fuselage by type Ju 287V-1. For the second experienced aircraft, the first layout option was chosen.
All possibilities of placing the TRD were thoroughly checked for models in the aerodynamic tube. It is noteworthy that another was set up in 1943: in order to reduce the resistance at speeds with a large number "M", the longitudinal arrangement of the engines "Lestenka" was the most successful, which corresponded to the "spatial rule", the German aerodynamic rule was only guesswork . People were late because when the JU 287 project was in the design process, advantages of this layout were revealed.
The aircraft with engines located in the "rule of the square" complicates the management system of these power plants (the length of the perimeter and the control of the control of the control), in addition, in the case of refusal of extreme engines, there might be difficulties in piloting. Concerns that those in the vicinity of the TRD in the vicinity of the TRD have a negative effect, however, is not confirmed in the process of the terrestrial stand tests.
One of the major advantages of the JU 287 with a sweep wing is to place a bomb 4.6 m long in front of the Centrumlane, near the center of gravity and able to hold up to 4 tons of bombs. On the flying laboratory ju 287V-1 there were only two crew members, and on JU 287 V-2 and V-3 - already three people, and they were placed on the last car in hermocabines. In option V3, the stern turret was provided with two 13mm remotely controlled MG-131 machine guns. Guiding the weapon was carried out with the help of a periscopic sight. All of the fuel was in the fuelative tanks.
After flights in Brandis, the V-1 aircraft was overhauled by the Rehlin air base, where testing continued.
In the process of mass production on the stands of the Junkers plants, they carried out the testing of various aggregates and systems, including fuel with the imitation of the possible evolution of the aircraft, including inverted flight. The hydraulic system has also been thoroughly examined, taking into account alleged damage, die casting and overloads not shown. Fully prepared and partially sent design documentation to the systems. In contrast to the bombing raids and the constant movements of the companies in Germany, the factories were almost ready to install the units and aggregates of aircraft. Across the entire territory of the provinces, Angali, Saxony, Thuringia, dozens of small plants and factories have been prepared for the beginning of the serial release of JU 287.
The JU-287V-1 aircraft made its first flight from Brandis Airfield near Leipzig on August 16, 1944. During the flight test, the aircraft developed a speed of 645 km / h. The acceptance weight of the aircraft was 20,000 kg, the weight of an empty aircraft - 12,500 kg. The second prototype of JU-287V-2 with a power plant of six BMW003A-1 turbojet engines and the first serial sample Ju-287V-3 by the end of the war were under construction. The Ju-287V-3 aircraft was supposed to have a top speed of 860 km / h and a flight range of 6650 km with a bomb load of 3000 kg. The aircraft should have a retracted chassis. The aircraft's power supply was to consist of six turbojet engines, four of which were installed in pairs in the nacelles under the wing, and two on the sides of the fuselage. The aircraft of the first series JU 287A-1 were planned to equip six BMW 003A-1, for the V-1 series four "HAKEL HIRT 001-1A", for JU 287V-2 - two BMW 018 with a 3400 kgf firmly . No serious work on the last options of the Germans, however, did not have time.
The Germans at the plant's factories in Dessau only created one JU 287V-2. But the engines of the car that was sent to Brendis soon dismantled. To save from the bombing, the plane lied to the edge of the forest and launched the nose shot away from the airfield. Hence, considering the results of aerial photography, the Americans came to the conclusion that the Germans built an airplane according to the "duck" scheme.
The Germans flew, Ju 287, before the American occupation of this part of Germany, but the wing of this aircraft was almost unaffected. Later everything that was survived was returned to Dessau and some of it was used for further work. It's a bit of luck ju 287V-3. At the time of the American arrival, the aircraft that began construction was under the rubble of the production workshop, the truth was almost unaffected.
Messerschmitt me 163 "Comet"
I 163 - a unique aircraft that left a bright mark in the history of aviation. It was the only unheated aircraft equipped with a liquid rocket engine that was adopted and participated in battles. In addition, it had other characteristics such as: B. a narrow specialization: a daytime interceptor for fighting Allied bombers, capable of developing a record speed and a wonderful durability for this time.
The first flight got involved on September 1, 1941. Produced a small series. By the end of 1944, 91 aircraft had been delivered. The first combat descent was carried out on May 14, 1944
ME-163 had a liquid rocket motor that served 80% hydrogen peroxide and liquid catalyst (potassium permanganate solution or a mixture of methanol, hydrazine hydrate and water). In the combustion chamber, hydrogen peroxide was decomposed with the formation of a large amount of superheated vapor gas mixture, creating strong reactive traction. Ignition was not required - after two liquids merged, the chemical reaction started immediately.
After takeoff, the aircraft dropped the chassis and landed on a sliding ski. Once, during takeoff, the pilot threw the chassis early, and it jumped out of the ground, hit the aircraft's tank, after which it fell and exploded.
There was also an educational version of this aircraft with a cabin on 2 pilots.
Such aircraft armed 3 groups, due to the lack of fuel in the hostilities only one group could participate.
The total German historians are returned to the pilots of Comet 16, but the Allies only confirm nine. American and British fighter pilots talk about six victories in the air about Me 163, and Sider's bombers are a little more. But even more "Comet" died during the exam and tutorials. So, in I./JG 400 between May 22, 1944 and January 20, 1945, at least 17 "comets" were lost by the worker.
The world's first experimental jet plane is not. 178 took off on August 27, 1939 in Germany. In Gloucester, United Kingdom, completely independent of him, an E28 / 39 airplane with a turbojet engine (TRD) was created, which took to the skies in May 1941. The third airplane with a gas turbine engine, patented F. Shuittl, took off in the United States. It happened on October 2, 1942. The first fighter aircraft with the TRD became the ME.262, which was created under the leadership of V. Visersmitt.
The idea of creating a fighter jet plane in Germany was born almost at the same time as the development of the TRD began. From the first sketches on the drawing boards to the beginning of an experimental copy of mine.262VI, the truth is still on a piston engine, three years have passed, and before the first departure of the car with a TRD - another couple of years.
IU.262 with the TRD YUMO-004 (version V5) with a nose, but through a non-drive wheel, earthly attraction for the first time on June 6, 1943, a prototype of the serial machine IU.262A.
The first flights on ME.262 \ / 5 disappointed designers due to the great length of the barrel. Then the aircraft installed with the launch of rocket accelerators, which allowed almost twice as much travel distance.
In early November 1943, the airfield was riveted to the airfield, which was occupied by nifty and more engines yumu-004b-1 in more grueling gondolas. In the plane installed for the first time the retractable front support of the chassis. It was supposed to be used as an air brake, but at the same time when it turned out, as it turned out, a strong diving moment was created to compensate for which the elevation steering wheel is insufficient. Even so, this car was still far too perfect. In particular, there was no mechanism for the release of the basic supports of the chassis, they simply fell out of their niches under the action of gravity after pressing the appropriate button.
Test flights on ME.262v6 continued until March 8, 1944, when the aircraft piloted by K. Shmidt failed a disaster.
From 1943 military with special attention began to follow the progress of the work on me. 262. In the same month, in Intlerburg, the leadership of Germany demonstrated in.262v6. But the guide brought him to him with the chill. While the leaders of the Third Reich were deciding what to do with the car, the seventh experienced authority built the airplane with a hermetic cabin. Consequences, I took off IU.262 U8, commissioned for the first time by standard weapons - four weapons of MK-108 caliber 30 mm.
A total of 12 copies of the experimental machines were built, the last of them - IM.262 V11 and IM.262 V12, were used for aerodynamic studies. In early 1944, 30 pre-production fighters were built under the designation ME-262A-0 for an experienced company. Only then was there a serial version of mir.262a-1a "Schvalbe" ("Swallow"), which became the basis for all subsequent changes.
The pilots found that I was significantly easier in management in 2002a-1 compared to the basic fighter bf.109g. The radius of the turn of the jet fighter was always higher, but a great angular velocity of the turnaround, which was partially compensated for this disadvantage, although it was dangerous to get into combat with the piston fighter. I was worse than accelerating, and on the dive, due to the lack of air brakes, he could easily run out of speed.
IU.262A-1 and flew quite well on one engine. At the same time, its speed reached 450-500 km / h, and the duration of the flight at an altitude of 7000 m - 2.25 hours. True, landing, as, however, and the continuation of takeoff, in the event of an engine failure was dangerous.
The fighter's armament consisted of four 30-mm MK-108A-3 cannons with 100 ammunition for the upper guns and 80 - for the lower ones. The choice of such weapons testified that the plane was supposed to fight the enemy bombers, and no one cared about the yardstick with fighters. Otherwise, it was advisable to use fewer caliber tools that were tested for BF. 109 and FW.190.
The fire of 30-mm fighter pistols was effective at a distance of up to 220 m, while the American bomber's arrows from machine guns could affect the enemy aircraft at a distance of up to 700 m. Because of this, the Germans in the air battles with Anglo-American bombers suffered great losses. As a result, other weapon options were also considered. Thus, a 20 mm Mg.151 pistol and 30 mm MK 103 were tested on ME.262A-1A / U1. The latter differed from MK 108 longer trunks with tolerant brakes.
In order to fight bombers, the aircraft was offered in the version Me.262D to equip the SG-500 "Jagdfaust" with a caliber of 50 mm in the nose of the fuselage. The weapons were designed to fire projectiles forward and upward. Three IU.262A-1A armed with 50mm MK-214A cannons.
Holders for 34 missiles were tested on me.262A-1B, it was planned to bring their number 48. In the Interceptor version, the R100 / BS missile was tested on the aircraft. The aerodynamic tests of the RZ 73 vertical launchers were also carried out.
Many difficulties in the development of the aircraft, which Letchikov supplied engines YUMO-004b. Their feature was a two-fuel system. The engine start was carried out with a two-stroke piston engine Rav / S10 "Rydel", which worked on gasoline. This fuel was used in the TRD, but only for the start. Only after reaching 6000 rpm was the engine automatically switched to diesel fuel, after which the turns were increased to 8000. When conveying the turbine, it was necessary to move the engine control lever very smoothly. Otherwise, the likelihood of an engine fire was high.
When the Anglo-American troops forced the Rhine, the basis of air defense in Germany in Germany, .TF.109 "G" and "K" were. Calculations have shown that the IU.262 provided a large protection zone compared to the IM.109K-4, and at high altitudes up to 8000 m, the enemy bombers can significantly overtake. As for the maneuverability in the horizontal plane, the advantage was exclusively on the side of the piston fighter. In Verticals, the Messerschmitt was superior to its predecessor in order to gain a greater height for a combat status. It was more difficult and his guns. With such qualities im.262 and entered battle.
1 - weapon; 2 - lantern of the pilot cabin; 3 - engine; 4 - AILERON; 5 - flap; 6 - central body (cone) in the nozzle part of the TRD; 7 - stabilizer; 8 - a steering wheel; 9 - Basic Chassis Support; 10 - Front support chassis folding center wiring harness; 11 - niche cleaning cleaning main support chassis; 12 - wing; 13 - air pressure receiver
Series Me.262 concentrated in the test team "262", the 7th fighter Escord, "Yaghetferband 44", the 10th group of the 11th squadgers of night fighters, the 1st group of the 54th bombarding squadron, two groups of the 51st squadron. Bombarding Squadron and 6th Intelligence Airgroup.
The first in the battle joined the "262" team. It happened in July 1944 when the English "mosquito" was intercepted. Pilots first encountered heavy bombers on September 11th. They met with the return after the raid on Germany from aircraft 17 equipped with Mustangami, and their only victory was the P-51 fighter. The result the next day was a little better, when at least two "flying fortresses" were destroyed.
In the fall of 1944, the "262" team soon turned into an air force, and headed one of the most famous pilots, Major Novotny. On October 7, 1944, the AirGroup lost the first two cars that were shot down in a dogfight. And the next day the commander was killed.
Despite the number of the group, from October 3 to 12, the liaison pilots, gifted three or four departures a day, reported the destruction of 22 (according to other data, 26) enemy aircraft.
In the first stage, the deployment of me.262 against Anglo-American aircraft was a complete success. The reason for this was the sudden appearance, since the speed of jet planes exceeded at least 200 km / h, a similar parameter of piston fighters. The reactive fighters made first in small groups in small groups in two - three aircraft at the connections of the enemy bombers and usually from the sun and a crossing of 500 - 1000 m. After several bombers they destroyed their system and at high speed \ left the battlefield. The time to re-attack just wasn't enough. However, such tactics have long given the "fruits". The crews of the bombers found a method of concentrated machine guns and the use of new tactics, which ended in a sharp maneuvering with a loss of speed, protect their "fortresses".
Generally "raw", with poor cannon cannon weapons and insufficiently prepared pilots, aircraft me.262, which received laurels from Jet Firstborns, did not have a significant impact on the war course.
A negative role in the fate of me.262 was played by Hitler and requested to turn the fighter to the bomber. In order to realize the wish of the probe, it was first necessary to experience different bomb hangers for the suspension of the measuring bombs from 250 to 1000 kg and to select the scope for bomb attacks and to develop the corresponding techniques. It should be noted that the bombing attack was only possible in horizontal flight, as the dive was excluded due to the lack of air brakes. There was no question of bombing from converting.
At the same time, there was the possibility of dragging 500 and 1000 kg bombs along a rigid crack. A car was attached to launch the bomb, after which it was separated from the earth with discontinuous bolts. The bomb was uncovered from the tow when the plane went in the diving area.
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