Which is the better option BARC or NPCIL
The triumphant advance of nuclear power - only in Germany is it considered a bridging technology PART I
By Günter Keil
with additions by Jürgen Wahl
(Our author Dr. Ing.Günter Keil worked in a leading position in the Federal Ministry of Research until his retirement in 2002)
Preliminary remark I.
The so-called nuclear renaissance has been going on for several years. Today 42 nations have construction plans for the construction of nuclear power plants (NPP) - 19 of them for the first time! - and another 7 have expressed their interest in it. Since NPPs can consist of one or more reactor blocks, it makes sense to only count the blocks. Since the unit output of new plants often reaches 1,000 - 1,500 MW (megawatts), new reactor units mean new, large NPPs with only one unit more often than before. There are currently 47 reactor blocks under construction; Another 186 reactor blocks are in the planning stage, around 120 of which will be in the next 3-4 years.
The global nuclear renaissance is happening in three ways:
@ The predominantly state-run and financed continuation of the
Nuclear plant construction in countries with existing industries such as France, Finland, South Korea, China, India and Russia;
@ Renewed support for nuclear technology in countries with existing industries but which have not seen new builds in the last few decades, such as the UK and USA in particular;
@ A number of potential newcomers in the nuclear market, the most substantial group consisting of various emerging economies in Asia and the Middle East.
@ Four countries had chosen to end nuclear energy: Belgium, Germany, Italy and Sweden. Italy and Sweden have changed their minds. In Belgium there has now been an extension for two NPPs. But in Eastern Europe and Asia, the development of new nuclear capacities was never stopped - on the contrary.
Preliminary remark II
The “International Forum IV Generation (GIF)”
? In 2001, 13 nations signed the founding document (the Charter): Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Republic of Korea, Republic of South Africa, Great Britain, USA. Other nations then joined the GIF: Switzerland 2002; EURATOM 2003; PR China and Russia 2006.
? Although Germany is a member of the European Atomic Energy Community, EURATOM, it does not actually participate in GIF reactor developments. German
Nuclear research institutes do not receive any government funding for this; only for safety research, but without the indispensable participation in new reactor developments, even with all the effort and expertise, it can hardly make any noteworthy contributions.
? The aim of the GIF: Identification and selection of 6 nuclear energy systems for their further development. The 6 systems to be selected offer a
Variety of reactor, energy conversion and fuel cycle technologies. Their designs feature thermal and fast neutron spectra, closed and open fuel cycles, and a wider range of reactor sizes - from very small to very large. Depending on their individual level of technical maturity, it is expected that the fourth generation systems will be used in the period between 2015 and 2030 and thereafter.
? The systems selected by GIF are:
1.Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) with fast neutron spectrum,
a helium-cooled reactor and closed fuel circuit;
Temperature 850 degrees Celsius;
2. High temperature reactor (VHTR)
Graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor with single-use uranium
Fuel cycle; Temperature 900 - 1000 degrees C; For details see China
(including hydrogen production) and South Africa.
3. Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR)
water-cooled high-temperature and high-pressure reactor above the
thermodynamic critical point of water works,
Neutron spectrum, thermal to fast; Temperature 510 - 625 degrees C;
4. Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR): fast neutron spectrum,
Cooling with liquid sodium, closed fuel cycle for the
efficient management of actinides (transuranic elements) and for their conversion
of natural uranium in fissile material; Temperature 550 degrees C; For more details see below
5. Lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) with fast neutron spectrum and
cooling with a liquid eutectic lead-bismuth mixture for the
efficient conversion of natural uranium and for actinide management;
Temperature 480 - 800 degrees C;
6. Molten salt reactor (MSR), generates the nuclear fission energy in a
circulating molten fluoride salt fuel mixture with a
epithermal neutron spectrum and a fuel cycle with
complete actinide recycling; Temperature: 700 - 800 degrees C.
Assessment of the GIF: “These systems offer significant advances in
Sustainability, security and reliability, economy, protection against proliferation and in physical protection. "
Balance of global nuclear power activities
The Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak announced on October 29, 2007 the construction of several nuclear power plants for exclusively peaceful use. "With this strategic decision we are taking on new responsibilities and drawing conclusions from the energy situation in Egypt," said Mubarak. In August 2010, the state news agency MENA announced that President Mubarak had given approval for the construction of the first nuclear power plant on the Mediterranean coast in Dabaa. Egypt intends to tender the construction contract in 2010. The country wants to build 4 nuclear power plants by 2025.
Algeria and the US signed a nuclear agreement in June 2007 that allows laboratories and researchers to work together in US facilities. On the occasion of the French President Sarkozy's visit to Algiers at the end of 2007, the local press speculated about the construction of up to a dozen reactors. Up to this point there had been two experimental projects. There is also interest from the Russian side. Then, in June 2008, France and Algeria signed a civil nuclear agreement.
In November 2008, Argentina and Algeria signed a nuclear energy cooperation agreement.
The Algerian energy minister Chakib Kheli announced in February 2009 that Algeria would build a nuclear power plant by 2020. In addition, Algeria plans to build a new reactor “every 5 years”.
The chairman of Algeria's Atomic Energy Agency, Comena, Dr M. Derdour was in South Africa at the beginning of February 2010 to sound out his country's entry into the PMBR (high temperature pebble bed reactor) project. A press release said Algeria is exploring the use of small pebble bed reactors to reduce its energy dependency and provide its inland villages with electricity and water.
Derdour: “We plan to build 1000 MW of nuclear capacity by 2022 and 2,400 MW by 2027. Since this energy is to be used for both power generation and seawater desalination, the pebble bed reactor technology appears to be an extremely attractive option.”
Jaco Kriek, head of PMBR Ltd., sees good opportunities for cooperation. A cooperation agreement in the field of nuclear energy has been in place between Comena and the South African Ministry of Science and Technology since 2003.
A new nuclear energy law has been in force in Argentina since November 25, 2009. It enables the construction of a 4th nuclear power plant with an output of 1,200 MW and the extension of the operating time by 30 years of the Embalse NPP (PHWR, 600 MW), which has been in operation since 1983, as "projects of national interest."
In addition, the national atomic energy commission Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) was commissioned to start building the Carem reactor prototype. It is a pressurized water reactor of Argentine design, which can be expanded to a capacity of 300 MW and the prototype of which is to be built in the northeastern province of Formosa. Formosa's governor, Insfran, announced that his province would become the “Northern Argentine capital for nuclear development”.
In 2005, the then President Nestor Kirchner in his
Energy program emphasizes the necessary completion of the Atucha II plant - as well as the further expansion of nuclear energy.
Construction of the reactor prototype Carem (see above)
Work on the heavy water reactor plant Atucha II (745 MW) on the Rio Parana near the city of Zarate was stopped in 1990; the reactor was 80% complete. The final completion, which began in 2006, was carried out by the specially founded Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) transferred. In 1980, Siemens received the Letter of Intent for the design and construction of the Atucha II plant. As with Atucha I, these are pressure vessel heavy water reactors of the PHWR type, which Siemens developed based on its own light water reactor technology. Natural uranium (UO2) is used as fuel, which is why the core must be moderated and cooled with heavy water (D2O).
The Grafenrheinfeld NPP serves as the technical reference, which is why the basic design of the Atucha II safety technology corresponds to that of the German convoy systems.
Now Siemens Argentina is once again involved with the assembly of the steam turbine generator and the generator.
In August 2010, Russian President Dimitrij Medvedev and his Armenian counterpart agreed on extensive mutual cooperation in the military and economic fields. This includes the construction of a new nuclear power plant, for which the Russian nuclear company Rosatom was awarded the contract. Order volume 5 billion dollars.
Australia has very substantial coal and uranium deposits (23% of the world's uranium reserves) from which the export economy benefits.
Australia does not yet have a nuclear power plant. There was already a proposal for a nuclear power plant: In the Jervis Bay Territory on the south coast of New South Wales. Several environmental studies and site work were carried out, and two rounds of bidders were opened and evaluated. However, the government decided not to pursue the project any further.
In June 2006, Dr. Switkowski has been appointed chairman of a Commonwealth Government Inquiry Team to determine the usefulness of a national nuclear power industry. This task force determined that Australia should add nuclear power to its energy mix. Other scientists then denied this finding. Switkowski was appointed chairman of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) by Science Minister Julie Bishop in March 2007. His appointment expires at the end of 2010.
At the end of 2006 and beginning of 2007, Prime Minister John Howard made widely regarded statements in favor of nuclear power - with the main argument being climate protection. The government he led entered parliamentary elections in November 2007 with a pro-nuclear program - but the anti-nuclear party Labor won. The new Kevin Rudd administration declared nuclear power unnecessary. Previously, in response to Howard's position, Queensland and Tasmania had banned the construction of nuclear power plants on their territory.
Australia's first nuclear reactor - not a NPP - was the heavy water moderated High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR), which in 1960 reached its full capacity of 10 MW thermal. It was built at the ANSTO research facility in Lucas Heights and was used for materials research and isotope production. HIFAR was taken out of service on January 30, 2007.
A similar replacement reactor OPAL with 20 MW was built on time and ran for 6 months in parallel with HIFAR; then OPAL took over the tasks of the predecessor.
With immense supplies and a strong coal industry, it is not surprising that Australia uses coal-fired power plants to generate its electricity. The motive for using nuclear power to generate electricity from the oil and gas supplying nations (Russia, Gulf States) does not apply here: these valuable energy sources are no longer burned in power plants, but rather exported. Electricity is then generated with coal or - increasingly - with nuclear power. For Australia there is no question of what to choose in view of its coal reserves, which will last for centuries.
In October 2007, King Hamad announced a plan to introduce nuclear power generation technology. In March 2008, Bahrain and the USA signed a cooperation agreement in the field of nuclear energy. In December 2008, Bahrain and France held talks on a nuclear program.
The head of the Commission for Atomic Energy in Bangladesh announced in September 2007 that a new nuclear power plant was to be built at the Rooppur site by 2015. In July 2009, Russia and Bangladesh signed a nuclear cooperation agreement.
In Belgium, the (national) Minister for Energy on October 1st, 2009 announced the
The enactment of a Royal Decree announced by a 10-year-old
Extension of the term for the 3 oldest NPPs Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1 is approved; so until 2025.
On August 18, 2008, the state energy supplier Eletronuclear presented the Brazilian President Lula da Silva with a national energy plan that extends until 2030 and provides for the construction of 4 new NPP units with 4,000 MW and the completion of Angra 3 (see below). Lula wants to use nuclear power to forestall an energy crisis in neighboring Argentina, where power outages are currently occurring almost every day.
Brasilia therefore urged Berlin for a new edition of the earlier German-
Brazilian nuclear agreement, which was suspended at the turn of the year 2004/2005 in order to implement its plans. It didn't happen.
Regarding Angra 3 (see above): Two 1,000 MW blocks were to be built in the northeast and two in the southeast; in addition, the construction of two further 1,000 MW blocks is being considered. The search for a location for the NO NPP should begin in 2008; for the SO-NPP 2010. The premises should offer space for up to 6 blocks. Construction of the first block is scheduled to start in 2019; every 2 years thereafter another block.
On May 25, 2010, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) granted approval for the completion of the Angra 3 power plant block in the state of Rio de Janeiro, which was started by the Siemens subsidiary KWU. The construction work was interrupted in the mid-1980s due to lack of money. The Angra 1 and 2 nuclear power plants are in operation at the same location.
The Bulgarian government is having problems securing funding for its new nuclear power plant plans. For the Belene NPP project, the foundation work of which began on September 3, 2008 in the presence of Prime Minister Sergei Stanischeff, the investor named RWE as the preferred partner. This was declared by the Bulgarian Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy, Petr Dimitrov, on October 2nd, 2008. In October 2009, however, RWE withdrew from the project due to unresolved financing issues. The Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borissow confirmed in June 2010 that Bulgaria was putting the construction of Belene on hold due to lack of funds. Bulgaria will only build its 2nd NPP "when the costs and the investor have been determined."
Energy Minister Trajtscho Trjakow presented a new plan in August 2010: If Belene cannot be implemented, Bulgaria will “certainly” force a 7th block in Kozloduy. However, there has not yet been a decision on either project variant.
Regarding Belene (see above): According to Minister Dimitroff, RWE had concluded a joint venture agreement with NEK (49% stake) with the client of the nuclear power plant, the state-owned energy company NEK. The Belgian Electrabel also planned to participate; possibly as a partner of RWE.
The decision to build two nuclear power plants of the Russian type AES-92 had already been decided in Belene; So pressurized water reactors of the III. Generation. Atomstroyexport (RUS) wanted to do this together with Areva / Siemens.
Regarding Kozloduy: It remains to be seen which of the two NPP projects will ultimately be implemented.
An assurance that RWE obtained for its planned stake in Belene is interesting: a share in the electricity production corresponding to its stake in the company.
According to Qin Sun, Vice President of China's National Energy Agency, with a statement from April 2009, 24 new reactors with 25,400 MW are under construction or in the advanced planning stage (the NPP output is currently 8,500 MW). A total NPP output of 40,000 MW is planned by 2020. A total of 60,000 MW are planned.
According to the science and technology development plan for the next 15 years published by the government in January 2006, the HTR gas-cooled high-temperature reactor is among the 16 national projects with the highest priority. China has acquired licenses for this from Germany.
China is also working on the development of a fast breeder reactor:
On January 8th, 2010 the “first concrete” was poured for the Ningde 3 nuclear power plant in southeast China. Construction on the 4th block began in July of this year. Ningde 1 and 2 have been under construction since February and November 2008, respectively. It is the Chinese type CPR-1000 with an output of 1,080 MW.Operations started between 2012 and 2015.
In Taishan the French Areva is building two EPR reactors (3rd generation) with 1650 MW, which are to go into operation in 2013 and 2015.
Construction of the second Fangjiashan 2 NPP unit began on July 17, 2009 in the province of Zhejiang on the east coast.
The Russian group Atomstroyexport is expanding the Tianwan nuclear power plant by two more reactor blocks, as agreed in a contract dated March 23, 2010. It should
VVER-1000 reactor blocks with 1,000 MW each are built. The first two reactors at the Tianwan NPP were commissioned as early as 2007.
China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC) had announced the start of construction of three new NPPs with up to 6 blocks for 2009. The contractor is a consortium made up of the Westinghouse Electric Company and The Shaw Group, which in July 2007 signed a contract with the Chinese State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNTPC) for the construction of initially 4 reactors of the type AP1000 for two nuclear power plants.
Construction of 2 units, each with a 1,250 MW reactor, began in March 2009 at the Sanmen site in the Cheizjan province. Start of operation in 2013 and 2014. A total of 6 blocks are to be built later at the Sanmen site.
In September 2009, construction began on the second Hayang NPP in Shandong Province, southeast of Beijing on the Yellow Sea. Like Sanmen, Hayang will receive two advanced AP1000 reactors from Westinghouse Electric. The location of the 3rd NPP had not yet been determined in 2009.
At the Qinshan site, around 100 km southwest of Shanghai in the Zhejiang province, where 5 NPP units are already in operation, a 6th unit - Qinshan-II 3 - has been under construction since 2006 and another is planned. Qinshan-II 3 is a Chinese type CNP-600 pressurized water reactor with 610 MW. The reactor pressure vessel was supplied by the South Korean engineering and construction company Doosan Heavy Industries Co.
In April 2010, construction work began on the first nuclear power plant on the island of Hainan at the Changjiang site. The first of 2 planned units of the Chinese type CNP-600 (650 MW) is to be commissioned in 2014. In a second phase, the construction of a 3rd and 4th block is planned.
China is also developing a fast breeder reactor: the construction work of the type CEFR - 65 MW therm., 23 MW el. - began in May 2000.
Like South Africa, China has acquired the licenses from Germany for the HTR pebble-bed reactor, which was blocked and ultimately prevented by the SPD-NRW state government. There were numerous meetings with German experts in China. A pebble-bed experimental reactor HTR-10 (10 MW thermal) has been set up in Changping on the premises of the Institute of Nuclear and New Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University. This was followed by the HTR-10GT project, in which a helium turbine was coupled with an HTR-10 reactor.
After the completion of the HTR-10, construction work began on a gas-cooled demonstration reactor, the High Temperature Pebble-Bed Module
(HTR-PM). Studies on the reactor and its power core have been carried out by INET and the East China Power Design Institute (ECPDI) since 2001. This was followed in May 2004 by a 2-year standard design project at INET. As early as August 2004, based on previous experience, the preliminary decision to design a reactor with a thermal output of 450 MW was made. The standard draft was available in May 2006. In a
3-step strategy was planned:
# A demo power plant with a steam turbine circuit.
# Other improvements to a range of 600 MW or 1000 MW units
to build that couple the steam turbines with 3 or 5 reactor modules.
# Further improvements to the power converter unit to get supercritical
To use steam turbines and helium gas turbines and
To achieve hydrogen production. Because this HTR operated at 900oC
water could be thermally broken down directly into oxygen and hydrogen
which is far more efficient than electricity-intensive electrolysis.
According to the science and technology development plan for the next 15 years published by the government in January 2006, the gas-cooled HTR is among the 16 national projects with the highest priority.
Construction of the demo power plant began in 2009 and is expected to be completed between 2012 and 2013. The location is said to be near the coastal city of Rongcheng in Shandong Province. If the HTR-PM demo power plant is successful, the aim is to increase the capacity to 4,000 MW (thermal). A production line for the fuel elements with 280,000 pieces per year is being set up parallel to the reactor.
The situation: The German nuclear power industry - if still available - and the large energy supply companies (EVU) are relying on the renaissance of nuclear power abroad; be it through deliveries and, for the EVU, through direct investments, especially in new nuclear power plants.
This policy is the consequence of the experience of the EVU with the
Federal governments. The German NPP operators seem to have given up hope of maintaining German NPP capacities in the medium term - not to mention new builds like those abroad.
At the beginning of September, the federal government decided to extend the service life of the German NPPs slightly, which were divided into two groups:
• 7 units built between 1975 and 1980 are given an 8-year extension, resulting in a total duration of 40 - 43 years. This means that the first 3 blocks should be offline in 2018 one block 2019 and 3 blocks 2020.
• 10 units built between 1982 and 1989 are given a 14-year extension, which means a total of 45-49 years.
• Comparison: The U.S.A. extended the service life of its nuclear power plants to 60 years.
This raises the question of the costs of the inevitably necessary future imports of nuclear power electricity at the latest in 2019 (cf. the statements by President Sarkozy in the “France” chapter). The EVU apparently see their only chance in participating in European NPP projects, which would enable them to have partial control over the threatening development of import electricity prices that is foreseeable for Germany as an industrial location.
Specific examples: Planned and failed RWE participation in the Bulgarian NPP Belene with an electricity quota agreement (see Bulgaria) as well as RWE participation in the Romanian NPP Cernavoda 3 and 4 (see Romania). It is not known whether there are or should be similar agreements with RWE / E.ON - NPP engagement in England, but it is very likely (see England).
Some examples of remaining German activities:
E.ON and the French Commissariat á l´Energie Atomique at aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) have reached a framework agreement for cooperation in nuclear energy research and development. The projects relate to both the second generation nuclear power plants currently in operation worldwide and to current construction projects for third generation plants. Generation, future reactors and options for fourth generation fuel cycles, which are expected to be used from the middle of the century.
At the beginning of 2009, E.ON and RWE announced a joint venture to build new nuclear power plants in Great Britain. This joint venture between E.ON UK and RWE nPower called Horizon Power Ltd. is responsible for the acquisition of sites in Great Britain, the support of the licensing process and the construction of the nuclear power plant. Further details are described under “England”.
RWE was named the preferred partner in the investor's selection process for the - deferred - Bulgarian nuclear power plant Belene, whose two AES-92 reactor blocks of the III. Generation of Areva and Siemens should be built together with the Russian Atomstroyexport (see Bulgaria).
The Swedish E.ON Sverige is hoping for the order to replace the Oskarshamn 1 block (see Sweden).
RWE and E.ON currently hold shares in 23 NPP units worldwide.
At the beginning of 2009, Siemens made use of an option to exit its previous minority stake in Areva. After the unsuccessful cooperation with Areva has ended, the company wants to find its way back into the attractive nuclear power business. At the beginning of March 2009, Siemens and the Russian state holding company Rosatom agreed on a joint venture to implement projects based on the Russian pressurized water technology VVER. Together, both companies want to win a third of the world market for nuclear power plants. The first possible joint project could be the construction of a NPP near Kaliningrad (see Baltiskaja NPP; Russia). Rosatom wants to benefit from Siemens know-how in power plant control technology, steam turbines and generators.
Siemens Argentina has taken over the assembly of the steam turbine set and generator for Atucha II (see Argentina).
In 2008, Siemens Energy received orders to modernize the steam turbine sets for the St. Lucie and Turkey Point NPPs, both in Florida.
The Wiesbaden-based company SGL Carbon, which specializes in carbon products, supplies the inner graphite coating, the central graphite column and graphite for the 450,000 fuel spheres of the South African pebble bed high-temperature reactor (HTR) PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor). SGL Carbon should also be in talks with China, which is also building the HTR developed in Germany.
The German NUKEM was involved in the PMBR-PFT fuel element sub-project for the South African pebble-bed HTR from the start and, as a first step, had prepared the detailed feasibility study for the entire fuel factory in 2000/2001. NUKEM then designed the manufacturing process, starting with the fuel elements already developed and manufactured in Germany, but taking into account the latest technology and safety regulations. Since August 2005, NUKEM has been doing the detailed engineering and supporting the procurement activities. Furthermore, NUKEM had built up a team of 40 highly qualified and experienced engineers.
On September 14, 2009, the Russian Atomstroyexport took over one of the two remaining areas, namely Nukem Technologies (decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities). The second area, NUKEM, deals with nuclear fuel trading. For the engineering company NIS see Siempelkamp (see below)
The Siempelkamp Group, Krefeld, is an international technology supplier; one of its three business areas is nuclear technology. Siempelkamp supplies mechanical equipment “all around the reactor”; i.e. fuel assemblies, loading machines, screw tensioning devices for opening the reactor lid, castor casks, safety locks. Furthermore, the “Core Catcher”, an essential element of the European standard reactor EPWR, which catches the material and prevents it from spreading if the reactor pressure vessel melts through. This business with new nuclear power plants is also 100% abroad. From what was left of NUKEM, Siempelkamp took over the nuclear engineering company NIS, which has extensive know-how in NPP calculations. Siempelkamp has 100% subsidiaries near Shanghai and in the Czech Republic.
A nuclear activity that can have certain application opportunities, at least in Europe, is the collaboration of German research institutes (FZK Karlsruhe, GSI Darmstadt) on the so-called transmutation (conversion) of long-lived radioactive elements that are currently lead to the very long storage times for untreated waste from the widespread light water reactors, into short-lived fission products.
The technology: You need a flow of fast neutrons to split these transuranic elements. This is achieved by a fast breeder reactor (see under Russia), but also a proton accelerator that aims at a lead target and thus generates the fast neutrons. The process is safe as it stops when the accelerator is turned off. The dissipation of the nuclear fission heat naturally released during this process takes place - just like with the fast breeder reactors - (cf. Generation IV, LFC system No. 5) by means of a liquid lead-bismuth mixture. This heat could be used, but then the transmutation plant would be a bad nuclear power plant. But if you waste this energy by discharging it into the environment, the system is a politically correct waste treatment machine ... That is why it is subsidized in Germany.
A transmutor facility could burn a ton of plutonium annually. The more than 500 tons of plutonium that is expected in the USA for the future could be burned in 8 such plants, which are also likely to be power plants there, with an electricity production of 17,000 MW for 90 years - the output of all German nuclear power plants. it is possible.
In the breeder reactors, the use of fast neutrons is the basic working principle anyway, which is why breeder reactors can be not only energy producers but also “nuclear waste incineration plants”, provided that the waste from light water reactors is offered to them as fuel in a suitable preparation. This fact results in the rather low interest of some of the breeder reactor operating and developing countries - above all Russia, then India and China - in the very complex transmutation. However, the EU, Japan and the U.S. are working on it.
The importance of waste treatment both in the breeder reactor and in the transmutation facility lies in the destruction and splitting of the long-lived actinides, which leads to the formation of fragments of the heavy elements, which are also radioactive but have drastically reduced half-lives (Cesium 137: 30.5 Years, cobalt 60: 5.6 years), which means that these fission products have lost their radioactivity in a repository after approx. 400 years. In addition, there would no longer be any material that could be used for nuclear weapons in this repository.
The technique of transmutation is expensive; Making it economical is the aim of the development work, which, according to the FZK, could lead to the construction of an experimental demonstration facility between 2023 and 2029. Belgium already offered itself as a location. If successful, one expects an increase in the power generation costs of the NPP by approx. 20%, which would be acceptable.
The question remains whether the technology of transmutation will ever be used as a treatment technology for NPP waste in view of the decades-long development lead of the fast breeder.
According to a report dated July 5, 2010, Dubai is working on an “Energy Strategy 2030” to ensure the supply of the electricity required in the country. Coal and nuclear power plants are under discussion. Private investments of up to 40% are possible, said Saeed Mohammed Al Tayer, vice chairman of the Supreme Council of Energy and head of the Dubai Electricity and Water Authority.
In 2008, the last Labor government under Gordon Brown declared it necessary in its energy program that the current contribution of nuclear energy to the electricity supply should not be kept at the current level of 20%, but should increase to 40% in the long term. To do this, at least 20 new NPPs would have to be built.
In November 2007 the government introduced a bill to simplify the planning process for infrastructure projects - including nuclear power plants - in parliament.
International reactor manufacturers had until June 22nd 2007 to apply for a concept approval procedure for reactor types that are to be used in Great Britain. Three manufacturers took advantage of this: Areva with the EPR, General Electric / Hitachi with the ESBWR and Toshiba-Westinghouse with the AP1000. All three technologies passed an initial summary test of their safety-related features, which was completed in March 2008, and entered an in-depth test, which will be concluded with a design acceptance confirmation at the beginning of 2011.
The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) approved 10 potential sites for the construction of new NPPs on November 9, 2009: Bradwell, Braystones, Hartlepool, Heysham, Hinkley Point, Kirksanton, Oldbury, Sizewell, Sellafield and Wylfa. There are already nuclear facilities in the vicinity of all of these locations. According to the “Nuclear Energy” planning guideline, these locations offer the possibility of temporarily storing radioactive waste from operation and later decommissioning on site until it can be stored in a deep geological repository.
Building applications for new NPPs should be assessed within one year.
The French EDF wants to build four reactors at two existing NPP sites: Hinckley Point in Somerset and Sizewell in Suffolk. An existing reactor is to be replaced at Hinkley Point.
Horizon Nuclear Power Ltd., a joint venture between E.ON UK and RWE npower, plans to commission the company's first nuclear power plant in Great Britain in 2020. It is to be built at the Wylfa site in Wales. A second NPP is to be built in Oldbury on Severn in Gloucestershire in south-west England. The construction sites were taken over by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Planned capacity at each of these locations up to 3,000 MW. Talks are being held with Areva and with Westinghouse (Toshiba subsidiary), whose pressurized water reactors of the III. Generation are currently going through the British pre-licensing process. By the end of the year, Horizon wants to select one of the bidders for the first location.
E.ON and RWE want to build new nuclear power capacities of 6,000 MW in Great Britain by 2025.
The British oil and gas group Centrica plc is participating in the British nuclear energy business of the French EDF according to an agreement dated May 11, 2009. To this end, Centrica is acquiring a 20% stake in the EDF subsidiary Lake Acquisitions Ltd., which was founded by EDF specifically for the takeover of British Energy BE (operator of 8 NPPs). EDF and Centrica are still planning a joint venture to build 4 new EPR NPPs in England as a first step. Further new buildings are not excluded.
The Lithuanian NPP project Visaginas is also intended to supply the two other Baltic countries.
At the beginning of July 2010, Parliament approved two motions for the construction of two more nuclear power plants. One of the new large power plants - Olkiluoto 4 - is to be located at the same location in Olkiluotu as the above. EPR NPP Olkiluoto 3 to be built; it is being built by Teollisuuden Voima Oyi (TVO). The Simo or Pyhäjoki site is planned for the second project planned by Fennovoima Oy. Fennovoima will only decide on a final location after the government has made a fundamental decision.
In May 2001, the Finnish government made the fundamental decision in favor of a deep geological repository.
These further NPP expansion plans prompted the disposal company Posiva Oy to apply for an extension of the deep repository which is currently being prepared (see below). This proposal received broad approval in the Finnish Reichstag on May 6, 2010; also from the opposition (14 against 2).
The reactor pressure vessel was recently installed in the Olkiluoto 3 EPR reactor under construction - the world's first new construction project for this generation III-plus nuclear power plant.
For the Olkiluoto 4 project see above
A repository for the highly radioactive reactor waste is already being prepared at the Olkiluoto site. The geological conditions on site underground are currently being clarified in detail in a rock laboratory called Onlako. According to Posiva, the access tunnel will soon reach the maximum storage depth of 420 m.
With the expansion approved in 2010, 9,000 tons of uranium can be accommodated, which already takes into account the approval for the further Olkiluoto 4 reactor block of the TVO. Finland will thus have the world's first repository.
According to a declaration from March 2010, Posiva plans to submit the building application for the 2012 extended deep repository, which has been approved in principle. The aim is to start construction in 2015 and apply to the government for an operating license in 2018. Operation could then be in 2020.
There is no information on whether the repository is designed for the re-extraction of radioactive waste (see also Switzerland). However, this would be obvious.
“France, which owns neither oil nor natural gas, should export more electricity and sell its EPR reactor (European generation III-plus pressurized water reactor; Areva) worldwide. An EPR produces around 12 billion kWh per year. If these were exported at today's prices, the country could generate export revenues of around EUR 600 million. France could not do without that, ”said French President Sarkozy on the occasion of his visit to the EPR construction site in Flamanville in Normandy on February 6, 2009. In his speech, for example, he justified the decision to build a second EPR (Penly 3, see below) and he is already thinking about a third EPR. The country needs these investments. In addition, it is necessary to maintain and expand nuclear know-how at the highest level.
The EPR NPP Flamanville 3 has been under construction since December 2007; operations are scheduled to begin in 2012. It is the second EPR under construction in the world — the first EPR reactor is under construction in Finland (see below).
The second EPR reactor to be built in France will be Penly 3. The building decision dates from January 2009; “First concrete” is planned for 2012 and commissioning in 2017. EDF is building the plant; the project group includes GDF Suez, Total and Enel (Italy) and possibly other European partners.
In 2007, in Cadarache in the south of France, the foundation stone was laid for the 100 MW Jules Horowitz research reactor, which is due to go into operation in 2014. With it, suitable materials for high-temperature reactors - i.e. Generation IV - are to be developed.
France also has considerable experience in the field of fast breeder reactors:
• Rapsodie test reactor in Cadarache, 1967 - 1983,
• Creys Malville, 1,180 MW, 1986 - 1996,
• Phenix in Marconne, 250 MW, 1974-2010
France's state-owned EVU EDF and the Areva company are making acquisitions worldwide for the sale of their nuclear power plants, including all associated services, with massive support from the government through nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. See the country reports; especially in the Middle East.
With these activities, France is ahead of Russia, followed by South Korea and China.
India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced in September 2009 that his country was going for nuclear energy. It should become the largest nuclear energy producer in the world. For this purpose, nuclear power plants with a total output of 470,000 MW are to go into operation by 2050. The share of nuclear energy in electricity generation - 3% today - is to be increased to 6% in the next decade and 40% in 2040.
India is pursuing 4 reactor lines, including 3 in-house developments:
# The heavy water reactor line PHWR, an Indian development. 12 such
Blocks are in operation. Two blocks of 700 MW are in the planning stage.
# The pressurized water reactor line. It is based on modern Russian reactors
Designs (VVER-1000; now AES-92).
# The breeder reactor line with fast neutrons. In the Indira Gandhi nuclear research
Center (IGCAR) has developed a 13.5 MW test breeder reactor (FBTR), the
In 1985 it went into operation at the Kalpakkam NPP. Subsequently, was also from
IGCAR developed a next performance level with 500 MW. Two reactors
of this type are being built at the same location. For two more blocks
of this type, a location in the same state is sought.
# The thorium reactor line. In the Bhabha Nuclear Research Center (BARC) is on
an advanced thorium reactor with an output of 300 MW (Advanced
Heavy Water Reactor: AHWR) worked with the use of thorium as a
Fuel and an advanced safety concept should be demonstrated.
Canada and India signed a nuclear deal in Toronto in June 2010. It allows India to import nuclear equipment and technology from Canada. India also secured supplies of uranium for its nuclear power plants.
The Russian Prime Minister Putin held talks in New Delhi in March 2010. Several documents on nuclear cooperation were signed between Russia and India. These include a road map for the development of cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy, contracts for the construction of further units at the Kudankulam NPP and a memorandum for cooperation in the construction of further units at the Kudankulam and Harapur locations (see below).
India operates 19 NPPs at 6 locations with a total of 4,340 MW. 5 blocks are under construction. Another 24 blocks are planned. After commissioning the other 4 units currently under construction, the total gross output of the Indian NPP park will increase to 7,280 MW. The government has already approved 4 more heavy water reactor blocks with 700 MW each; 2 of them at the Rajasthan site. In the long term, around 60,000 MW are to be built using various reactor technologies.
The Rajasthan 6 nuclear power plant went into operation in March 2010. It is a heavy water reactor of Indian design with an output of 220 MW and thus identical to the Rajasthan 5 block, which started operation in December 2009.
Details of some of the planned plants: For the planned heavy water reactor blocks Rajasthan 7 and 8 (700 MW each), the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) placed the orders for the preparatory work.
Russia wants to build 12 NPPs in India (see below); 6 of these plants are to be built between 2012 and 2017, said Rosatom boss Kirienko at the o.e. Visit of the Russian Prime Minister Putin to New Delhi. The contracts concluded in the process concerned the construction of units 3 and 4 of the Kudankulam NPP and a memorandum on cooperation in the construction of further units at the Kudankulam (4 units) and Harapur sites in West Bengal (6 units). Blocks Kudankalum 1 and 2 are under construction. The Kalpakkam 1 and Kaiga 4 NPP units are also under construction.
In July 2009, the French Areva Group submitted an offer to NPCIL to build two 1,600 MW nuclear power plants of the EPR type European pressurized water reactor. A preliminary contract was signed. The location is supposed to be Jaitapur on the Indian west coast; Start of operation at the end of 2017 and the end of 2018. However, the NPCIL assumes that up to 6 blocks can be built there.
In July 2009 the Indian government approved two sites in the states of Gujarat in the northwest and Andhra Pradesh in the southeast for the construction of new nuclear power plants by American companies.
India began construction of a new thorium reactor in 2007, which was being developed at the Bhabha Nuclear Research Center. The AHWR-300 is the world's first commercial reactor to use thorium as a nuclear fuel. Its security concept is based on passive measures, which are intended to minimize the influence of security personnel.
The global thorium deposits exceed the uranium deposits by more than ten times. India's share of this is considerable.
The Indonesian government announced in April 2005 that the country's first nuclear reactor would be built on Java by 2016.
The Vice President stated in August 2007 that the uranium required for NPPs is likely to come from Australia.
The first Iranian nuclear power plant Busher, which was completed by Russia, is scheduled to go into operation from September 2010. It was presented in a ceremony in August 2010.
After the Italian Chamber of Deputies, the Senate also approved a legislative package on July 9, 2009 that reverses the phase-out from nuclear energy that was decided over 21 years ago. The bill paves the way for the construction of new NPPs in Italy.
Because of the previous Italian exit policy, Italy had been importing nuclear power from its northern neighbors for years and Italian companies were participating in NPPs in these countries.
The Italian electricity supplier Enel S.p.A. and the French state-owned company Electricité de France (EDF) founded a joint venture in August 2009 to examine the construction of European pressurized water reactors (EPR) in Italy. It will initially carry out feasibility studies for the construction of at least 4 EPR reactors in Italy. This enables EDF to participate in Enel's nuclear program. Enel is to take over a majority stake in the operation of the NPP; the participation of other Italian RUs is possible. A first block is scheduled to go into operation by 2020.
In a second agreement, EDF and Enel agreed that Enel would have a 12.5% stake in the second EPR project in Penly; in other words, with the same share with which Enel is already involved in the first Flamanville 3 EPR reactor block in France, which is currently under construction.
The Enel S.p.a. has a majority stake in the Slovak company Slowenske Elektrarne a.s. (SE), which controls the Mochovce NPP. It is understandable that Enel has received an order from SE for the conventional part of the upcoming completion work on blocks Mochovce 3 and 4.
Japan has so far covered almost a third of its electricity needs with nuclear energy, generated in 54 reactors. According to the government's energy plan, a total of 14 new NPPs should go online by 2030. The share of nuclear energy in electricity generation is to grow to 50%. The Monju breeder reactor plays an important role in the government's goal of reducing dependency on energy imports. The technology of the fast breeder reactor enables the closed fuel cycle aimed at by Japan.
After a 14-year hiatus, Japan put its Monju (280 MW) fast breeder reactor back into operation in early May 2010. By 2012 it should be at its full
Achieve performance. In 1995 the plant was shut down due to the leakage of the coolant liquid sodium with the following fire.
The 100 MW Joyo research reactor has been running as another fast breeder reactor since 1978.
The oldest NPP unit in Japan, Tsuruga 1 (341 MW), which has been in operation since 1969, can now continue to operate until 2016, as decided in February 2010. It is the first reactor block in Japan to continue operating beyond the original design period of 40 years.
At the same location, the two advanced APWR blocks are under construction, of which Tsuruga 3 will start operations in 2016 and Tsuruga 4 in 2017.
Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Tepco) started restarting the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa 6 plant, which had been idle for 2 years, in August 2009, the world's most powerful nuclear power plant, after Unit 7 was already connected to the grid in the middle of the year. The standstill was the result of the severe earthquake on July 16, 2007.
Toshiba, which rose to the top group of nuclear power plant builders when it acquired Westinghouse in 2006, also specializes in mini nuclear power plants. These are considered “inherently safe” (i.e. not capable of a core meltdown for physical reasons) and more affordable.
On April 1st, 2009 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) merged its 3 nuclear engineering subsidiaries to form the new company MHI Nuclear Engineering Company. It will mainly focus on developing next generation reactors for the Japanese market. However, it should also take an active part in the strategic development of reactors for the foreign market; so at the US-APWR, and together with Areva at the EU-APWR and the Atmea.
In February 2010 Areva and the Jordanian government signed a contract for 25 years of uranium ore mining. A “partnership agreement” to train nuclear engineers and technicians was also reached - and an Areva offer to build two nuclear power plants on the Gulf of Aqaba was discussed.
In a few years, Jordan wants to be the first country in the region - apart from Israel - to put a nuclear power plant into operation. Jordan has significant uranium ore deposits (estimated uranium reserves 140,000 t), which is what Amman does
prompts to strive for a future role as a uranium exporter or nuclear fuel manufacturer. Nuclear power is expected to cover around a third of the country's energy needs by 2030.
The General Director of Rosatom, S. Kirienko, and the Chairman of the Jordanian Atomic Energy Commission, Ch. Tukan, signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Moscow on May 22, 2009. The object of the agreement is in particular the planning and construction of nuclear power plants and research reactors, the exploration and development of uranium deposits, nuclear fuel deliveries, and the withdrawal of spent nuclear fuel.
In July 2009, Jordan and Russia signed a 10-year contract for the construction of 4 NPPs. Great Britain, France, Canada, the USA and Japan had already agreed nuclear cooperation agreements with Jordan.
Areva as well as Russian, Chinese and South Korean companies are trying to get involved in the upcoming deals.
Rosatom General Director Kirienko explained in addition to the o.e. Conclusion of the contract on May 22, 2009 that the construction of 4 NPP blocks in Jordan is planned for the next 10 years, for which Russia is offering its participation.
Israel's safety concerns about building a nuclear power plant on the Gulf of Aqaba were already dispelled by King Abdullah in 2009 when Jordan agreed to cooperate with Russia on the use of nuclear energy: “The reactors we are looking at belong to Generation III-plus, which is by far the safest and most capable technology to have. They are earthquake-proof, safe against natural disasters and against terrorist attacks. This technology is a generation, if not two, further than what Israel has. "
On October 31, 2009, the Canadian supervisory and licensing authority, the Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), extended the operating license for the Candu reactor units of the Bruce A (units 1 to 4) and Bruce B (units 5 to 8) nuclear power plants for a further 5 years; thus until October 2014. Units 1 and 2 are currently being modernized.
The NPP operator Bruce Power Alberta announced on March 23, 2009 that Whitemud - 30 km north of Peace River and 400 km from Edmonton - is now Bruce's preferred location for the planned construction of the first NPP in the province of Alberta.
Bruce Power also intends to further modernize the Bruce NPP
concentrate in order to be able to provide 6,300 MW.
Ontario Power Generation (OPG) announced its investment strategy for two nuclear power plants in February 2010: Darlington 1 to 4 (4 blocks of 878 MW each, CANDU) is to be comprehensively modernized and its service life extended by a further 30 years.There are also plans to invest in the 4 blocks of Pickering B; with 10 more years of operation.
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) announced in May 2009 that it has signed contracts with 18 Canadian companies to manufacture components for the Advanced Candu Reactor ACR-1000, with AECL having already invested over € 320 million in the development of this advanced heavy water reactor. According to a study, building 12 Candu reactors (including 4 in Canada) would create thousands of new jobs.
The Kazakh raw materials company Kazatomprom has from Toshiba, which 67% of the
Westinghouse shares, bought a 10% stake in the leading US nuclear company Westinghouse Electric. This is shown by the country's pragmatic economic policy aimed at foreign countries. Kazatomprom President Mukhtar Dschakishev appeased the critical Russian press: The deal will in no way affect the good relations with Russian colleagues.
In 2009, Kazakhstan took first place among the uranium-producing countries with a production of 14,000 t of uranium, ahead of Canada and Australia. Target for 2010: 18,000 t.
Based on the forecasts of the leading energy companies, the capacities of the nuclear power plants will double their current level by 2030; the further plans of the National Nuclear Energy Company Kasatomprom are therefore directly geared towards the renaissance of nuclear energy.
To this end, the expansion of the complete nuclear fuel cycle is planned.
The construction of a plant for uranium conversion is planned together with the Canadian company CAMECO. In Angarsk there is an “International Center for Uranium Enrichment” together with Russia and Ukraine. The establishment of a fuel element production facility is planned with Areva.
In South Korea, twelve new NPPs are scheduled to go online by 2022. With its new construction program, the government wants to increase the share of nuclear power to 59% by 2030 (currently
By 2030, South Korea wants to export 80 NPPs and a share of 20% of the
Reach the growing nuclear energy market. The state-owned electricity supplier Korea Electric Power Corp. (Kepco) is negotiating with Turkey and targeting Brazil and South Africa.
The country plans to invest in foreign uranium mining projects in order to secure a stable fuel supply.
The Ministry of Knowledge Economy also plans to train 2,800 new nuclear engineers.
Together with Westinghouse, South Korea has won a billion-dollar contract in Abu Dhabi. After this success, Seoul is pushing its own industry in the country even more to move into the top group of nuclear energy providers.
On April 15, 2008, the government of Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) approved the construction of a third and fourth NPP unit at the Shin-Kori site, near the port city of Busan in the southeast. A consortium led by Hyundai Engineering and Construction Co. (HECC) was commissioned to build the two pressurized water reactors of the Korean type AP 1400 - the further development of the first Korean type OPR1000.
In Shin-Kori and Shin-Wolsong two pressurized water reactors of the older type OPR1000 are still under construction.
On April 2, 2009, the government granted KHNP permission to build two NPPs at the Shin-Ulchin site near the existing Ulchin NPP on the east coast. Two advanced pressurized water reactor blocks of 1,400 MW each of the APR1400 type are planned, one of which is already under construction at the Shin-Kori site.
Shin-Ulchin 1 is scheduled to go into operation at the end of 2015; for Shin-Ulchin 2 2016.
South Korea has already proven its competitiveness with the order from the United Arab Emirates: The KEPCO-led consortium is building the power plants there for around $ 5 billion per plant; Areva estimated this to be $ 7 billion. - see United Arab Emirates.
The engineering and construction company Doosan Heavy Industries Co. had already signed a contract with Westinghouse Electric in April 2007 for the delivery of 2 reactor pressure vessels and 4 steam generators for 2 advanced pressurized water reactors of the type AP1000 for the Chinese site in Haiyang.
In February 2009, a French company began studying Kuwaiti plans for nuclear power plants. French and Kuwaiti officials held talks in June 2009 during which it was proposed to step up cooperation on the development of a joint civilian nuclear program.
See “Lithuania”: New construction of a nuclear power plant in Ignalina
In July 2007 France signed its first nuclear pact with a Maghreb country. A French company was supposed to participate in the construction of a desalination plant and was to receive a permit to search for uranium. There is already a test reactor in the Libyan Tajura.
In November 2008, Libya and Russia agreed on their nuclear cooperation.
Libya had already signed a contract with Russia in 1970 for the delivery of two VVER-440 reactors. The components were to be supplied by the Belgian company Belgonucleaire. She got out after the US spoke out against it. In 1984 the work on the location development was stopped. In 1986 the planning for a further 9 blocks of 440 MW each was suspended.
After the shutdown of the technically problematic Ignalina NPP, which was requested by the EU and which took place at the end of 2009, Lithuania is planning a new NPP together with its neighboring countries. Until then, electricity will mainly come from the ElektrÄnai coal-fired power plant and the Kaunas hydropower plant, although Lithuania will now have to import around a third of its electricity needs.
The planned new NPP would meet a main objective of the national energy strategy: “Continuation and development of safe nuclear energy and the commissioning of a new NPP by 2015 at the latest to meet the needs of the (3) Baltic countries (!) And the region."
The Lithuanian Ministry of the Environment therefore approved the construction of the planned new nuclear power plant at the Visaginas site on April 22, 2009 - on Lake Driai near the city of Visaginas in the triangle between Belarus, Latvia and Lithuania. It is being built 1 km from the Ignalina NPP. Two blocks with a total output of up to 3,400 MW and a planned operating time of 60 years are to be built.
During her visit to Vilnius on September 5, 2010, Chancellor Angela Merkel promised the Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaite political support for the project and also promised to help with the search for investors. She added that she “always endorsed” this new build. (Note: The fact that the Chancellor is supporting this new nuclear power plant abroad differs considerably from her policy at home.)
This means that the planned Russian NPP Kaliningrad (see “Russia”) is in direct competition with Visaginas.
Malaysia's Minister of Energy, Water and Communications announced in September 2008 his country's intention to generate nuclear power by 2023.
Malaysia's Deputy Minister for Science, Technology and Innovation announced in July 2009 that the country would consult with the IAEA and the US on its nuclear policy.
The Malaysian energy company Tenaga put the construction of the country's first nuclear power plant out to tender in June 2008; Costs $ 3.1 billion.
King Mohammed VI and President Sarkozy announced in October 2007 a “new major project for peaceful nuclear energy”. A framework agreement should be signed shortly.
Morocco offers attractive opportunities for profitable uranium extraction from the rich phosphate deposits in its western regions - including the Western Sahara. They are counted among the largest in the world by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
There is an experimental reactor supplied by the USA in Maarmora. A nuclear power plant and a nuclear desalination plant are planned in Sidi Boulbra and Tan Tan, near the border with the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara, which Morocco annexed in 1975.
In Mexico there is the Laguna Verde NPP with two boiling water reactors of 682 MW each. Location: On the Gulf of Mexico, Vera Cruz state. The government decided in 2005 to shut down the NPP without specifying a date. In 2007 it was decided to increase the output of both reactors by approx. 20%. The power plant is operated by the government organization Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE).
The CFE announced at the beginning of May 2010 that it had worked out 4 energy supply scenarios to meet the requirements of Mexico's new national energy policy. One of them provides for the construction of 10 NPPs.
President Felipe Calderon expressed the hope that the NPP construction costs will be partly financed by rich nations.
The main interest of the Mongolian government as well as foreign investors is the uranium deposits and their exploitation (range of estimates: 62,000 - 150,000 t). Russian President Dimitri Medwedjew and Mongolian President Zachiadijn Elbegdorsch signed a cooperation agreement for joint uranium extraction in Mongolia on August 25, 2009 in Ulan Bator.
The Rosatom boss Sergej Kirienko also held talks in Ulan Bator in August 2009 and noted that "a lot still needs to be done for the construction of NPPs in Mongolia." Small and medium-sized NPPs such as those built in northern Russia could be considered.
The Prime Ministers of China and Mongolia, Wen Jiabao and Sukhbaataryn Batbold, signed a cooperation agreement covering 9 topics, including the use of nuclear energy, on June 2, 2010 in Ulan Bator.
The nuclear energy agency established in 2001 is responsible for radioactive materials and the interim and final storage of fissile materials.
The 2007 Nuclear Energy Act gives the government the right to take over 51% of the shares in projects and joint ventures involving uranium deposits discovered with state funding, and 34% if not, without compensation. The state also oversees uranium mining and the operation of nuclear facilities.
Investors from France, Canada, Russia and India have already shown interest in uranium mining in Mongolia.
The Netherlands have extended the life of their Borsele NPP by another 20 years until 2033; new constructions are already being discussed. The technical planning is concentrated in the TH Delft.
Pakistan offered its nuclear knowledge to Nigeria as early as March 2004. In August 2008, Nigeria and Iran signed a nuclear treaty. Russia signed an agreement with Nigeria in June 2009 and agreed to build a nuclear power plant and a research reactor.
To be continued see PART II
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