Why do managers plan in organizations
See: Management functions
All tasks that belong to the management of a company or its sub-areas. Since management is a complex task, innumerable task catalogs have been developed so far, which differ in terms of the delimitation and focus on the management functions, but primarily in the level of detail and terminology. If the complex, interlinked management functions are broken down into the dimensions of process, structure and personnel, the main target functions of the manager can be described and the individual tasks can be systematically assigned: Process-oriented management functions: The manager systematically pursues the company's goals. It follows the phase scheme of planning, implementation, control. He starts planning. This is where goals are set, alternatives for achieving them are formulated and evaluated, and a decision is made about the concept to be implemented. This is followed by implementation, in which measures are taken to implement the concept. Once this has happened, the control follows in the form of a target / actual comparison and deviation analyzes. The management process and the classification POSDCORB show a more detailed breakdown.
Structure-oriented management functions: the manager organizes. It creates the structural framework for an efficient division of labor through the organization of operational processes. It defines responsibilities and authority to issue instructions. It formulates permanent regulations for similar cases, leaves room for individual decisions and thus creates an operational order that is supposed to guarantee specialization, coordinated cooperation, stability, flexibility, predictability and simplification of ongoing management tasks.
Personnel-oriented management functions: The manager must lead employees, but also allow himself to be led by superiors, work together with colleagues and other departments in a trusting manner, and communicate with customers, lenders and other external parties. He pursues a double goal in personnel management. It motivates employees to perform for the company and creates the conditions that guarantee employee satisfaction.
Established by Henri Fayol, the function-oriented view of management that dominates management literature. Such a view can be further subdivided into a factual aspect of the management of systems (e.g. through planning, organization and control) and a personal aspect of the management of people. While the factual aspect emphasizes the control and steering mechanisms in the company, the personal aspect examines the interpersonal relationships between superiors and employees (corporate management). It should not be overlooked here that the separation into factual and person-related components is only of an analytical nature, since in reality there is a close connection between factual and personal orientation. The idea of seeing the management functions as phases in the sense of a logically building order of tasks creates the management process from a factual perspective and the management process from a personal perspective. The personnel aspect (management process) is not pursued any further here. Management functions (leadership functions) therefore include, from an objective point of view, all tasks that are required for the management and control of systems, especially companies. Basic management functions are planning, decision-making, organization / implementation and control. In principle, management functions can be fulfilled at all management levels, even if there are differences in type and scope. The basic prerequisite is the existence of the authority to make decisions and issue orders, i. H. the tasks must not be solely of an executive nature. (1) Planning includes the future-related mental structuring (thinking) of the company for the future for the systematic preparation of decisions. Since all planning is goal-oriented, goals must first be formulated as benchmarks for future action. Here, the overall goals of the company are concretized by deriving sub-goals for the following levels, so that the goals as a whole guarantee the urtuliung of the overarching goals. The problem analysis, which is particularly necessary in the case of poorly structured problems, follows the goal planning. The following search for a solution tries to work out alternative courses of action for eliminating problems (planning of measures and the resources to be used), which are assessed by the evaluation with regard to their effectiveness. Planning takes on a primary function within the framework of the management functions in the sense that all other functions learn their determination from planning and are thus subject to the primacy of planning. (2) Deciding means the selection of the best possible course of action from a set of previously defined possible courses of action that exist in a certain decision-making situation. The decision completes the conceptual phase and the implementation phase is initiated by declaring that the chosen course of action is binding. The decision is often not seen as an independent management function, but rather seen as part of the planning. The great importance of decision-oriented business administration (Edmund Heinen) in German management literature as well as the frequently occurring different roles of planning (typical staff activity) and decision (line) justify making the decision independent as a management function. The decision is of particular importance in the case of multi-member decision-making bodies (e.g. the board of directors). The negotiation process that begins in such bodies can lead to aggregation paradoxes and shifts in risk and requires appropriate precautions (e.g. coordination techniques). Incidentally, the classification of the decision following the planning is a widespread idea. It should be noted, however, that decisions are constantly being made when performing all management functions. (3) Organizing refers to the creation of a set of actions that specifies all necessary tasks and / or takes care of all material and technical preparatory work, so that the implementation of the plans is guaranteed. Organization in this functional sense serves the purpose-oriented fulfillment of plans and is only instrumental. On the one hand, the creation of task units in line with the plan by way of the formation of positions and departments (organizational structure) is important, whereby these must be equipped with the appropriate competencies and authority to issue instructions. On the other hand, a spatiotemporal structuring of the processes for the fulfillment of tasks (workflow organization) is necessary. The realization or execution in the meaning of the word implements the mental activity (action). The realization is not an original task of the management levels. Rather, the level of implementation is addressed above all. In the case of simple problems, organization and implementation will be carried out in one go. This sometimes leads to a content-related and conceptual confusion of organization and implementation. (4) The control includes a comparison of plan and (future) implementation parameters (target / actual comparison or target / actual comparison). In the event of deviations, the necessary deviation analysis is also part of the control. Since, on the one hand, controls cannot be carried out without planned target specifications, and, on the other hand, plans must be constantly monitored with regard to their implementation, planning and control are also referred to as twin functions. An efficient interaction of the management functions is crucially dependent on a sufficient mutual supply of information. Controlling takes on the task of cross-functional horizontal coordination of management functions and vertical coordination across management levels by means of information networking. The function-oriented view of management is criticized by representatives of the empirical-action-oriented approach due to the lack of realism and the lack of empirical foundation. Empirical studies of actual manager actions come to the conclusion that the manager's working day is made up of short, extremely fragmented and (mostly unplanned) activities guided by compulsory action. In addition, direct verbal communication dominates with managers. Despite this criticism, the procedural view of management with the help of management functions appears to be a useful, especially didactically valuable aid to enable an analytical consideration of the individual functions. The need for an extended consideration of the conceptual relationship between the management functions is explicitly made clear by the cross-functional controlling. Literature: Mag, W, Die Funktionerweiterung der Unternehmensführung, in: WiSt, 21. Jg. (1992), p. 60 ff. Steinmann, H./Schreyögg, G., Management. Fundamentals of corporate management, 3rd edition, Wiesbaden 1993.
Describe the management functions - tasks that are, or should be, performed by managers. The number of catalogs of management functions is unmanageable.
Nevertheless, a largely accepted picture of basic functions has emerged. The one linked to Henri Fayol (1841-1925) was of particular influence
POSDCORB classification by L. H. Culick. This concept distinguishes between the following functions:
Planning, which is the general determination of what to do and how it should be done in order to achieve the company's goals. Organizing, i.e. the establishment of a formal authority structure that forms work units, defines them and coordinates them with a view to the overall goal.
Staffing, i.e. recruiting and training staff and ensuring adequate working conditions.
Directing, i.e. the ongoing making of individual decisions and their implementation in case-by-case or general instructions.
Coordinating, i.e. the ubiquitous task of linking the different parts of the work process.
Reporting, i.e. the continuous information of the superior level about the development of the task execution. This includes the ongoing self-information and that of the subordinate employees.
Budgeting, i.e. the performance of all tasks that are part of - budgeting, in particular budget preparation and budget control. From this and other concepts, the classic five-man canon of management functions has emerged, as it is valid for management theory to this day and was described by Harold Koontz and Cyril O'Donnell:
(2) Organization (organizing)
According to this, neither coordination nor management decision are regarded as independent functions, because they do not represent a sub-function per se, but a cross-functional meta-functions that are inherent in every management function and are brought about by a large number of different management actions.
In the conception of Koontz / O \ 'Donnell the order and sequence of the five management functions is defined. They are viewed as phases in the sense of a sequence of tasks that build on one another. The classic management process arranges the five management functions according to the following phase sequence: planning, organization, personnel deployment, management - control.
R. L. Katz named three key competencies (“skills”) which he regards as prerequisites for successfully fulfilling management functions:
(1) Technical competence: Expertise and the ability to apply theoretical knowledge and methods to a specific individual case. This is the easiest skill to teach, and management science has focused on it for a long time.
(2) Social Skills: The ability to work effectively with other people as a member or leader of a group. In addition to a fundamental willingness to cooperate, this also includes the ability to understand the actions of other people and to empathize with them. The social competence of a manager is required on at least four levels: on the level of colleagues, subordinate employees, superiors and reference groups from the environment:
(3) Conceptual competence: the ability to identify related problems and opportunities. The development of this competence requires a fundamental understanding of the overall system and the forces that keep the service process going. Conceptual competence also requires the ability to look at a problem from different perspectives or, more generally, to think in different categories. In addition, it requires the ability to ensure coordinated action within and between the departments, despite differing perspectives.
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