Why was Ned Kelly imprisoned in 1871

Ned Kelly - Ned Kelly

Australian bushranger (1854–1880)
Ned Kelly on November 10, 1880, a
Day before his execution
Born December 1854
Died 11th November 1880 (age 25)
occupation Bushranger
Criminal status Executed by hanging
  • John "Red" Kelly (1820-1866)
  • Ellen Kelly (née Quinn) (1832-1923)
Conviction (s) Murder, assault, theft, armed robbery
Penalty death

Ned Kelly (December 1854 - November 11, 1880) was an Australian bushranger, outlaw, gang leader and convicted police murderer. As one of the last bus drivers, he is known for wearing a bulletproof armor suit in his last police shootout.

Kelly was born in the then-British colony of Victoria, the third of eight children of Irish parents. His father, a transported convict, died shortly after serving a six-month sentence, leaving Kelly, then 12, as the eldest man in the household. The Kellys were a poor selector family who saw themselves as oppressed by the Squattocracy and victims of persecution by the Victoria Police. As a teenager, Kelly was arrested for being associated with the bus ranger Harry Power and served two sentences for various crimes. The longest period was from 1871 to 1874 because he was convicted of receiving a stolen horse. He later joined the "Greta mob," a group of Bush larrikins known for camp theft. A violent confrontation with a police officer took place at the Kelly family home in 1878, and Kelly was charged with attempted murder. Kelly fled into the bush and vowed to avenge his mother, who was imprisoned for her role in the incident. After he, his younger brother Dan, and two co-workers - Joe Byrne and Steve Hart - shot and killed three police officers, the Victoria government ruled them illegal.

Kelly and his gang were able to evade the police for two years, thanks in part to the support of an extensive network of sympathizers. The gang's crime included raids on Euroa and Jerilderie and the murder of Aaron Sherritt, a sympathizer who became a police informant. In a manifest letter, Kelly, denouncing the police, the Victorian government and the British Empire, wrote his own account of the events that led to his illegality. He called for justice for his family and the rural poor and threatened dire consequences against those who opposed him. When Kelly's attempt to derail and ambush a police train failed in 1880, he and his gang, clad in armor made from stolen plow-shaped boards, engaged in a final shootout with the Glenrowan police. Kelly, the only survivor, was badly wounded in police fire and captured. Despite thousands of supporters attending rallies and signing a petition for his stay, Kelly was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death by hanging, carried out at the Old Melbourne Gaol. It was reported that his last words were "Such is life".

Historian Geoffrey Serle called Kelly and his gang "the final expression of the lawless frontier in what is becoming a highly organized and educated society, the final protest against the mighty bush now tied to Melbourne and the world by iron rails." In the century after his death, Kelly became a cultural icon, inspiring numerous works of art and popular culture, and being the subject of more biographies than any other Australian. Kelly continues to cause division in his homeland: some celebrate him as Australia's equivalent to Robin Hood, while others see him as a murderous villain who doesn't deserve his status as a folk hero. The journalist Martin Flanagan wrote: "What makes Ned a legend is not that everyone sees him the same - it is that everyone sees him. Like a bush fire on the horizon, which throws its red glow into the night."

Family background and early life

At the age of 11, Kelly saved a boy from drowning in a creek and received this green sash in recognition of his bravery. Kelly wore the sash under his armor during his last stand in Glenrowan. It remains stained with its blood. (Benalla Museum).

Kelly's father, John Kelly (known as "Red") was born in 1820 in Moyglass, near Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland, to Thomas and Mary (née Cody). At the age of 21 he was convicted of stealing two pigs and was transported on the Prince Regent Land Van Diemen, arriving in Hobart Town on January 2, 1842. After receiving his Certificate of Freedom on January 11, 1848, Red Kelly moved to Victoria and found work at James Quinn Farm at Wallan Wallan as a bush carpenter. He subsequently turned his attention to gold digging, which he was successful in and which enabled him to buy a small property for £ 615 in Beveridge, north of Melbourne.

On November 18, 1850, at the age of 30, Red Kelly married Ellen Quinn, the 18-year-old daughter of his employer, in Father Gerald Ward's St. Francis Church. Edward Kelly was the third child of his parents, named after Red's closest brother. The exact date of birth is unknown, but a body of evidence, including a 1963 interview with descendants of Paddy and Charles Griffiths, a note from his mother, and a note from a school inspector, suggests his birth was in December 1854. Ned Kelly was baptized by an Augustinian priest, Charles O'Hea, who also administered the final rites to Kelly before his execution.

In 1864 the Kelly family moved to Avenel near Seymour, where they soon attracted the attention of local police. As a boy, Kelly received elementary school and familiarized herself with the bush. In Avenel, he risked his life to save another boy from drowning in Hughes Creek. The boy's family gave him a green sash that he wore under his armor during his last showdown with the police in 1880.

In 1865, Red was arrested for having meat in his possession that he couldn't explain. He was unable to pay the £ 25 fine and was sentenced to six months of hard labor, serving at Kilmore Gaol. After his release, Red drank a lot, which was ultimately fatal to his health. In November 1866 his body swelled up from dropsy and he died on December 27, 1866 in Avenel. He and his wife had eight children: Mary Jane (died as a child at the age of 6 months), Annie (later Annie Gunn), Margaret (later Margaret Skillion), Ned, Dan, James, Kate and Grace (later Grace Griffiths) . The story of his father and his treatment by the police made a strong impression on young Kelly. A few years later the family chose 360,000 m 2 unmanaged and unnamed farmland on Eleven Mile Creek near the Greta area of ​​Victoria.

In a dispute with the established Graziers, whose land the Kellys invaded, they were often suspected of stealing cattle or horses, but were never convicted. A total of eighteen charges were brought against members of Kelly's immediate family before he was declared an outlaw, while only half that number resulted in convictions. This is a highly unusual relationship for the time, and has led to allegations that Kelly's family has been unjustifiably targeted since they moved to northeast Victoria. Perhaps the move was necessary because Kelly's mother had quarreled with family members and appeared in court over family disputes. Author Antony O'Brien has argued that Victoria's colonial police practice viewed arrest as equivalent to proof of guilt.

Rise to notoriety

Bushranging with Harry Power

Grasp power. Kelly was falsely accused of reporting the bus driver.

At the age of fourteen, Kelly met Irish-born Harry Power (aka Henry Johnson) in 1869, a transported convict who turned to bus ranking in northeast Victoria after escaping from Pentridge Prison in Melbourne. The Kellys were part of his network of sympathizers, and by May 1869, Ned had become his protégé. At the end of the month they tried to steal horses from the Mansfield property of squatters John Rower in order to rob the gold escort Woods Point - Mansfield. They gave up on the idea and fled back into the bush after Rower shot them, and Kelly temporarily cut his connection with Power.

Kelly's first dispute with the law took place in mid-October 1869 over a dispute between him and a Chinese pork and poultry dealer from Morse's Creek named Ah Fook. According to Fook, as he passed the Kelly family home, Ned brandished a long stick and declared himself a bushranger before stealing 10 shillings from him. Fook then traveled to Benalla to report what had happened to Sergeant James Whelan who, according to colleagues, was "a perfect encyclopedia of knowledge" of the Kellys and their criminal activities. The next morning Whelan hunted Kelly in the bush outside Greta and took him to Benalla, where he testified in court the next day that Fook had molested his sister Annie for giving him creek water and not rainwater when he asked for as a traveler a drink. Then the story continued, Fook hit Ned with a stick after coming to his sister's defense. Annie and two family-related witnesses confirmed Ned's story. With no other witnesses, the charges were dismissed on October 26 and Kelly was released.

Kelly reconciled with Power in March 1870, and the next month the couple committed a series of armed robberies when police tried to find them and identify Power's young accomplice. By the end of April, the press had named Kelly as the culprit, and a few days later he was captured by police and confined to Beechworth Gaol. Kelly tried three different robberies, the first two of which were dismissed as neither victim could clearly identify him. On the third charge, the victims also reportedly failed to identify Kelly, but were in fact denied the ability to identify him to Superintendents Nicolas and Hare. Instead, Nicolas informed the judge that Kelly matched the description and requested that he be taken into custody for trial. He was sent to Melbourne, where he spent the weekend in jail, before being taken to Kyneton for trial. No evidence was presented in court and he was released after a month. Historians tend to disagree on this episode: some see it as evidence of police harassment; others believe the Kelly family intimidated the Witnesses and made them reluctant to testify. Another contributing factor to the lack of identification may have been that the Witnesses described Power's accomplice as "half-caste" (a person of Aboriginal and European descent). However, police believed this was due to Kelly being unwashed.

Power often camped at Glenmore Station, a large estate owned by Kelly's maternal grandfather, James Quinn, on the upper reaches of the King River. In June 1870, Power was captured by a police search party while resting in a mountainside gunyah (bark shelter) overlooking the property. After Power was arrested, word spread through the community that Kelly had informed him about him. Kelly denied the rumor and in a letter that contains the only surviving example of his handwriting asks Sergeant James Babington of Kyneton for help, saying that "everyone looks at me like a black snake". The informant turned out to be Kelly's uncle Jack Lloyd, who received £ 500 for his help.

The Benalla Ensign reported on Power's criminal career and wrote:

The effect of his example has already been to drag a young man into the open vortex of crime, and if his career is not abandoned quickly, young Kelly will blossom into a declared enemy of society.

Horse theft, assault and imprisonment

Mug shot of Kelly, 15 years old

In October 1870, a street vendor, Jeremiah McCormack, accused a friend of the Kellys, Ben Gould, of stealing his horse. Gould wrote an indecent note to McCormack giving a childless woman who was used to wrap two calves' testicles. Kelly passed it on to one of his cousins ​​to give to the woman. When McCormack was confronted with Kelly later that day, Kelly punched him in the nose and dropped McCormack. Kelly was arrested for sending the parts of the calves and the note and attacking McCormack. He was sentenced to three months of forced labor on each charge.

Kelly was released from Beechworth Gaol on March 27, 1871, five weeks earlier, and returned to Greta. Three weeks later, horse breaker Isaiah “Wild” Wright came into town on what Kelly later described as a “very notable” chestnut mare. Wright visited the Kelly homestead to see his friend Alex Gunn, a Scottish miner who had married Kelly's older sister. Wright wanted to ride the borrowed mare back to Mansfield, her owner's hometown, but discovered the next morning that she was gone. Gunn lent him one of his own horses and promised that if he found her, he would keep the mare until Wright returned. Shortly after Wright left, the mare was found by Gunn and a neighbor, William (Bricky) Williamson. Kelly then took the mare to Wangaratta, where he stayed for four days. On April 20, 1871, on her way back to Greta, Kelly was intercepted by Constable Edward Hall, who suspected the horse had been stolen. He directed Kelly to the police station on the pretext of having to sign some papers. When Kelly dismounted, Hall tried to grab his neck but failed. When Kelly resisted arrest, Hall drew his revolver and tried to shoot him, but he fired three times. He was then overpowered by Kelly, who later said he sat on top of him and dug spurs into his thighs, causing the cops to "roar like a big calf attacked by dogs". After subjugating Kelly with the help of seven bystanders, Hall whipped him with the pistol until his head became "a mass of raw and bleeding flesh."

Although Kelly claimed he didn't know the mare belonged to anyone other than Wright, he and Gunn were charged with horse theft. When it later became known that Kelly was still incarcerated at Beechworth Gaol at the time the horse was removed, the charges were downgraded to "felonious admission of a horse". Kelly and Gunn were sentenced to three years of forced labor. Wright escaped arrest for theft on May 2 following a "shootout" with police, but was arrested the following day at Kelly Homestead and received eighteen months for theft of the horse.

Kelly after defeating Isaiah "Wild" Wright in a 20-round boxing match in August 1874

Kelly served his sentence at Beechworth Gaol, then at HM Prison Pentridge near Melbourne. On June 25, 1873, Kelly's good behavior brought him up for a transfer to prison Sacramento which was anchored off Williamstown. He returned to Pentridge a few months later and was released six months early on February 2, 1874 for good behavior. That same month, his mother, Ellen, married an American, George King, with whom they had three children. King, Kelly, and Dan Kelly became involved in ranching.

To settle the score with Wright over the chestnut mare, Kelly fought him on August 8, 1874 at the Imperial Hotel in Beechworth. Kelly won after 20 rounds and was declared the district's unofficial boxing champion. Shortly thereafter, a Melbourne photographer made a portrait of Kelly in a boxing pose. Wright became a passionate supporter of Kelly.

On September 18, 1877, Kelly was arrested in Benalla while drunk for riding a sidewalk and imprisoning her for the night. The next day, when he was escorted by four police officers, he fled and ran to take refuge in a shoemaker's shop. The police and the shopkeeper tried to handcuff him but failed. During the fight, Kelly's pants were torn off. Trying to get Kelly to take advantage of his ripped pants and take advantage of Irish-born Constable Thomas Lonigan, who later murdered Kelly at Stringybark Creek, he "black-balled" (grabbed and clenched his testicles). During the fight, a miller came in and when he saw the behavior of the police, he said, "You should be ashamed." Then he tried to calm the situation down and got Kelly to put the handcuffs on.

Kelly said of the incident, "During this attempted arrest, Fitzpatrick tried to grab my foot and in combat he tore the sole and heel of my boot clean. With one aimed blow, I threw him against the wall, and the breathtaking one The blow I then gave him partly explains his behavior towards my family and me later on. "

It is reported that Kelly subsequently threatened the crime that would eventually sentence him to death, and Lonigan said, "Well, Lonigan, I've never shot a man. But if I ever do, help me, God , you. " I will be the first. "

Kelly was accused of being drunk and assaulting the police. He was fined £ 31s, which included damage to uniforms.

In October 1877, Gustav and William Baumgarten were arrested for delivering stolen horses to Kelly. Gustav was released, but William was sentenced to four years in prison in 1878 while in Pentridge Prison in Melbourne.

Fitzpatrick incident

Fitzpatrick's version of events

Remains of the Kelly residence in Greta, the site of the Fitzpatrick incident

On April 15, 1878, Constable Strachan, the officer in charge of the Greta Police Station, learned that Kelly was in a particular shed and went to arrest him. As lawlessness was widespread in Greta, it was recognized that the police station could not be left unprotected, and police officer Alexander Fitzpatrick, who, like the Kellys, was also of Irish descent, was sentenced to auxiliary service there. Fitzpatrick was aware of an arrest warrant for Dan Kelly for horse theft and discussed with his sergeant in Benalla the idea of ​​calling Kelly's house en route to arrest Dan Kelly. The sergeant consented to his actions, but warned him to be careful. He was instructed to go to Greta and drive through Wilton on the way to Greta. There he stopped at the hotel where he had a brandy and a lemonade.

When he found Dan wasn't home, he stayed in conversation with Kelly's mother and other family members for about an hour. According to Fitzpatrick, when he heard someone chopping wood, he left to make sure the chopping was licensed. The man turned out to be William "Bricky" Williamson, a neighbor, who said the only time he needed a license was if he was chopping Crownland. (According to Williamson, he was half a mile from the Kellys by his own choice).

Fitzpatrick then watched two riders approach the house he had just left. The men were teenage boy Dan Kelly and his brother-in-law Bill Skillion. Fitzpatrick returned to the house and made the arrest. Dan asked to have dinner before he left. The policeman agreed and stood near his prisoner. While the cop was guarding Dan Kelly, the older brother Ned rushed in and shot him in the left arm with a revolver two centimeters above the wrist. At the same time, Ellen Kelly, Ned's mother, attacked Fitzpatrick and hit him over the head with a fire shovel, rendering him pointless.

Fitzpatrick stated that all but Kelly's mother were armed with revolvers, that Kelly shot him in the left wrist, and that Ellen Kelly hit him on the helmet with a coal shovel.

When he came to, Ned Kelly forced him to pull the bullet out of his arm with a knife so it couldn't be used as evidence. and when he promised not to make a report against his attackers, he was allowed to leave. He had ridden away about a mile when he found two riders chasing them, but by galloping his horse into a gallop, he fled to the Winton Hotel, where he was assisted by the manager. He was offered a brandy and lemonade, which he declined but later accepted a drink. When he was safe again, he no longer considered the promise he had made to the criminals as binding, but reported the matter to his superior when he reached Benalla, accompanied by the hotel manager driving with him.

Kelly's version of events

"The witness who can prove Fitzpatrick's lie can be found through advertising, and if not immediately, dire disasters will ensue. Fitzpatrick will be the cause of a greater slaughter of the rising generation than St. Patrick did for the snakes and toads in." Ireland. For if I had robbed, looted, desecrated and murdered everything I met, my character couldn't be painted blacker than it is now, but thank God my conscience is as clear as the snow in Peru. "

-  Kelly in a letter to Superintendent John Sadleir and MP Donald Cameron, December 1878

In an interview three months before his execution, Kelly said he was 200 miles from home at the time of the incident, and in his opinion his mother had asked Fitzpatrick if he had an arrest warrant and Fitzpatrick said he only had one Telegram his mother said Dan didn't have to go to. Fitzpatrick then said, pulling out a revolver, "I'll blow your brain out if you interfere." His mother replied, "You wouldn't be so handy with your popgun if Ned were here." Dan then said, trying to outsmart Fitzpatrick, "Ned will come by next to the house." While pretending to look out the window at Ned, Dan cornered Fitzpatrick, picked up the revolver, and claimed he had released Fitzpatrick unharmed.

Kelly claimed that he was absent and that Fitzpatrick's wounds were self inflicted. Kenneally, who interviewed remaining Kelly brother Jim Kelly and Kelly cousin and gang provider Tom Lloyd, and carefully examined the Royal Commission's 1881 report on the Victoria Police Department, wrote that Fitzpatrick was drunk when he arrived at Kellys while he waited for Dan he walked up to Kate and Dan threw him to the ground. In the ensuing fight, Fitzpatrick drew his revolver, Ned appeared and with his brother grabbed the policeman, disarming him, but not before slamming his wrist against the protruding part of the door lock, an injury he believed was a gunshot wound.

After Ned Kelly was captured, a journalist asked him if Fitzpatrick had tried to take liberties with his sister, Kate Kelly. He said, "No, that's a stupid story. If he or any other cop tried to take liberties with my sister, Victoria wouldn't stop him". Kelly also admitted shooting Fitzpatrick after his capture. During Kelly's trial in Melbourne, Senior Constable Kelly described an oath conversation with Ned Kelly immediately after he was captured in Glenrowan. "Between 3 and 6 that same morning had another conversation with the prisoner in the presence of Constable Ryan. Gave him some milk and water. Asked him if Fitzpatrick's statement was correct. The prisoner said," Yes, I shot him. "


Williamson and Skillion were arrested for their part in the affair. Kelly and Dan were nowhere to be found, but Ellen was taken into custody along with her baby Alice. On May 17, 1878, Williamson, Skillion and Ellen Kelly were tried in Benalla Court on remand on charges of accessory to attempted murder. The three appeared before Judge Redmond Barry on October 9, 1878, and were charged with attempted murder. Although Fitzpatrick's doctor reported an alcohol smell on the cop and his inability to confirm the wrist wound was caused by a bullet, Fitzpatrick's evidence was accepted by the police, judge, and jury. The three were convicted on Fitzpatrick's evidence. Fitzpatrick's evidence was later confirmed by Williamson when he was interviewed by Captain Frederick Standish in prison. Ms. Kelly, Skillion and Williamson were tried and convicted of the attempted murder of Fitzpatrick. Skillion and Williamson were both sentenced to six years and Ellen to three years of forced labor. Barry stated that if Kelly was there he would "give him 15 years". Frank Harty, a successful and well-known farmer in the area, offered to pay Ellen Kelly's bail, after which the bail was immediately refused.

Ellen Kelly's verdict was viewed as unfair even by people who had no reason to be Kelly sympathizers. Alfred Wyatt, a Benalla police officer, later told the commission: "I found the verdict against this old woman, Ms. Kelly, very severe." Enoch Downes, a gay officer, reported to the commission in 1881 that, speaking to Joe Byrne's mother, he said he did not believe in the judgment and "if a policy had been applied or consideration for the mother would have been two or three months would have passed. " was plentiful. "When Kelly was executed, his mother was still in prison.

Stringybark Creek Police Murders

Greta Mob members Dan Kelly (left), Steve Hart (center) and Joe Byrne (right) began negotiating with Ned Kelly after the incident with Fitzpatrick.
Clockwise from top left: Constable Lonigan, Sergeant Kennedy, Constable McIntyre and Constable Scanlan.
Memorial erected in Mansfield in 1880 in honor of the police officers murdered on Stringybark Creek

After the verdicts were announced in the Benalla Police Court, both Ned and Dan Kelly doubted they could convince the police of their story. So they hid where they were later accompanied by friends Joe Byrne and Steve Hart.

The police had received information that the Kelly gang was in the Wombat Ranges at the head of the King River. On October 25, 1878, two police parties were secretly dispatched - one from Greta, consisting of five men, commanded by Sergeant Steele, and one from Mansfield, consisting of four men, with the intention of performing a pincer movement.

Sergeant Kennedy of the Mansfield Party went in search of the Kellys, accompanied by Constables McIntyre, Lonigan and Scanlan. All were dressed in civilian clothes. Police set up camp on a disused excavation near two miners' huts on Stringybark Creek in a heavily forested area, a location that Kennedy suggested in a letter to Superintendent Sadleir before the party withdrew because of the distance between Mansfield and the King gathered river and because the area was "so impenetrable".

Early the next day, Kennedy and Scanlan went down to the creek to scout it and left McIntyre to take care of the camp service. Around noon, Lonigan heard a strange noise down by the stream and McIntyre went to investigate, hoping it might be some kangaroos that he could shoot for dinner. Instead, he shot and killed some parrots that he cooked for dinner. (The bus drivers were unaware of the sound of the gunshots at the time.) At around 5 p.m., McIntyre was by the fire making tea with Lonigan when they were suddenly surprised by the scream by the Kelly gang. "Bail up, hold your arms up". McIntyre testified that Kelly took his piece of poultry (shotgun) and that all gang members were armed. (Kelly stated that only two had guns.) After leaving his revolver on the tent door, McInytre held up his hands as instructed. Almost immediately, Kelly shifted his target from McIntyre to Lonigan and fired. Kelly shot him in the temple. He fell to the ground and said, "Oh God, I'm shot." He died a few seconds later. Kelly remarked, "What a shame; what got the fool going?" Kelly had McIntyre searched and dropped his hands when they found he was unarmed. They took Lonigan and McIntyre's revolvers and helped themselves with items from the tent. Kelly spoke to McIntyre and expressed his wonder that the police should be foolhardy enough to find him in the areas. It was obvious that he knew the exact condition of the camp, the number of policemen and the description of the horses. He asked where the other two were and told McIntyre he would kill him if he lied. McIntyre revealed her whereabouts and pleaded for her life:

I told [Kelly] that they were both compatriots and fellow believers in their own right. ... I thought he might have some of that patriotic-religious feeling that is such compassion among the Irish. My opinion is that he didn't have that feeling. On the question of religion, I believe he was apathetic, and like many young Bushmen, he was more proud of his Australian birth than of his exclusion from a particular race. One of his favorite expressions was, "I'm going to let them see what a native Australian can do."

McIntyre asked if he should be shot. Kelly replied, "No, why would I want to shoot you? Couldn't I have done it half an hour ago if I wanted to?" He added, "At first I thought you were Constable Flood. If it had been you, I would have roasted you in the fire." Kelly asked if the police had come out to shoot him. "No," replied McIntyre, "we have come to arrest you". "What," Kelly asked, "gets you out of here at all? It's a shame to see fine, tall, firming guys like you in a lazy, loitering stick like cops."

McIntyre asked what they would do if he made his comrades surrender. Kelly said, "I'm not going to shoot a man if he holds his hands up," and that he would hold her all night because he wanted to sleep and let her go the next morning without her guns or horses. McIntyre said that if Kelly kept his word, he would make her surrender, adding that one of the two had many children. Kelly said, "You can count on us." Kelly stated that Fitzpatrick was the cause of all of this; that his mother and the rest were wrongly "left behind" in Beechworth. He told McIntyre to leave the police. McIntyre agreed, saying that he had considered this for some time because of poor health. Ned asked McIntyre why her search party had so much ammunition on them. McIntyre replied that it was about shooting kangaroos.

The Kelly gang prepare to open fire when Kennedy and Scanlan arrive. Lonigan's body is in the foreground.

At around 5:30 p.m. Kelly heard Kennedy and Scanlan approach, and the four gang members hid, some behind logs and one in a tent. They made McIntyre sit on a log and Kelly threatened, "Remember, I have a rifle for you if you sound the alarm." Kennedy and Scanlan rode into camp. McIntyre stepped forward and said, "Sergeant, I think you'd better get off and surrender when you're surrounded." Kelly shouted at the same time: "Put your hands up". Kennedy seemed to believe that it was Lonigan who was calling, and that he was kidding, for he smiled and put his hand on his gun case. He was shot at immediately, but not hit. Kennedy then realized the hopelessness of his position, jumped from his horse and pleaded for his life: "Everything is fine, stop, stop". Scanlan's horse was disturbed and he tried to dismount but fell to the ground and was on all fours. When he got up, Kelly shot him in the right chest, killing him almost instantly.

McIntyre, believing the gang intended to shoot the entire group, fled on Kennedy's horse. Several shots were fired at McIntyre as he fell down the stream, but none reached him. The rifles were apparently empty at this point and only the revolvers were available. Ned later wrote that he never intended to kill McIntyre "since I didn't want to shoot him after he surrendered". McIntyre galloped two miles through the brush and then his obviously wounded horse became exhausted. Suffering from a serious fall during his escape and with his clothes in tatters, McIntyre hid himself in a wombat hole until dark, taking note of the direction of the setting sun. Around midnight he set out to cross Benalla Street, walking west, guided by a star. After crossing a number of streams, his feet were scrubbed and had to walk in one of his boots. After a pause and a match to light a small compass, he traveled about 20 miles before reaching a farmhouse outside Mansfield on Sunday afternoon. Then he drove the buggy to Mansfield and then straight to the residence of Sub-Inspector Pewtress.

Two hours after McIntyre reported the soldier's murder, Pewtress set off with McIntyre, Constable Allwood, Dr. Reynolds and five townspeople set off for camp. They only had two rifles. They reached the camp with the help of a guide, Mr. Monk, at 2 a.m. There they found the bodies of Scanlan and Lonigan, as well as the burnt tent and the looted or destroyed property. The autopsy of Dr. Reynolds revealed that Lonigan had received four wounds, one through the eyeball. Scanlan's body had four bullet marks with the fatal wound caused by a rifle ball going cleanly through the lungs. Ned later refuted this, saying "the coroner should be consulted".

No trace of Kennedy had yet been discovered, and another failed search party was launched on the same day as Scanlan's and Lonigan's funeral. His body was found a few days later by Henry G. Sparrow, a few hundred meters northwest of the campsite near Germans Creek. The location of Kennedy's murder is said to have been rediscovered in 2006.

Prohibited under the Act on Arrest of Criminals

Proclamation by Governor George Bowen declaring Ned and Dan Kelly illegal

In response to public outrage over the killing of police officers, the reward was increased to £ 500, and on October 31, 1878, the Victorian Parliament passed what came into force on November 1, 1878 law about the Arrest of offenders that the gang and the police ban allowed anyone to shoot them: there was no need to arrest the criminals or stand trial if arrested (the law was based on the New South Wales Act of 1865, which explained Ben Hall and his gang criminals). The law also punished anyone who housed, "helped, shelter or support" the outlaws, or withheld or given false information about them to the authorities. The punishment was "imprisonment with or without forced labor for a period not exceeding fifteen years". With this new law on November 4, 1878 arrest warrants were issued against the four members of the Kelly gang. The deadline for their voluntary surrender was set on November 12, 1878.

Euroa raid

Around noon on December 9, 1878, the Kelly gang held up the Younghusband station in Faithful's Creek, near the town of Euroa. Ned assured the people that they had nothing to fear and only asked for food for themselves and their horses. An employee named Fitzgerald, who was having dinner at the time, looked at Ned, who was casually playing with a revolver, and said, "Well, of course, if the gentlemen want refreshment, they must have it." The other three criminals who had taken care of the horses locked the men in a storage room with Ned. No interference was offered to the women. In the late afternoon, the station manager, Mr. McCauley, returned and was stopped immediately.

Around sunset, street vendor James Gloster arrived at the train station to camp for the night. Previously, he wiped off warnings that the place was being held up by the Kelly gang, and when approached by Ned, he reacted angrily and tried to get a revolver from his car. Ned threatened to shoot him and said it would be easy if the street vendor "had no bourgeois language in his head". Gloster asked the bus driver who he was. He replied, "I'm Ned Kelly, Red Kelly's son, and a better man has never been in two shoes." McCauley persuaded Gloster to surrender, and the couple joined the other prisoners in the storeroom. The Kellys stole new suits and a revolver made from Gloster's stock to look presentable at the bank. They offered the street vendor money for her, which he refused. After sunset, the hostages were allowed to get some fresh air. The time passed quietly until 2:00 a.m., at which time the outlaws whistled strangely and Hart and Byrne stormed out of the building. McCauley was surrounded by the bus drivers and Kelly said, "You are armed, we found a lot of ammunition in the house." After this episode, the outlaws withdrew to sleep.

The following afternoon, Byrne released the telegraph poles and cut the wires to cut the city's police line with Benalla. Three or four railroad workers tried to interfere, but they too were taken hostage. The bus drivers then went to the bank with a small check from McCauley. The bank was now closed, and as such, Ned forced the clerk to open it and cash the check. After taking 700 pounds of banknotes, gold and silver, Ned forced the manager to open the safe, from which bus drivers received 1,500 pounds of paper, 300 pounds of gold, 300 pounds of gold dust and nearly 100 pounds of silver . The total amount reported stolen was £ 68 10 banknotes, £ 67 5 banknotes, £ 418 1 banknotes, £ 500 in government bonds, approximately £ 90 in silver; and a 30 ounce bar of gold. The criminals were courteous and considerate of Scott's wife. Scott himself invited the outlaws to have whiskey with him, which they did. The whole group went to Younghusband, where the rest of the hostages were. The evening seems to have passed pleasantly. McCauley told Kelly that the police might come along, which would mean a fight. Kelly replied, "I wish they would because there's a lot of cover here." Tea was made in the evening, and at eight-thirty the outlaws warned the hostages not to move for three hours and told them they would leave. Just before they left, Kelly noticed that a Mr. McDougall was wearing a watch and asked about it. McDougall replied that it was a present from his dead mother. Kelly stated that he would not consider it and very soon after that the four of the outlaws left. What is unusual is that these moving events took place without the people in the city knowing anything. The hostages left the station after five hours.

Kelly held sympathizers

The detention of 23 Kelly sympathizers has boosted public support for the gang. (Image: three of the sympathizers from left to right: John Quinn, John Stewart and Joseph Ryan).

In January 1879, under the command of Captain Standish, Superintendent Hare and Officer Sadleir, police arrested all known Kelly friends and alleged sympathizers, a total of 23 people, including Tom Lloyd and Wild Wright, and held them for over three years in Beechworth Gaol without charge fixed months. According to Hare:

All responsible men who were responsible for different stations and who had been in Benalla for a long time - the detectives and officers - were picked up in Benalla on the orders of Captain Standish. They ... all went into a room and were asked the names of those in the district who they considered sympathizers. I had nothing to do with just listening and writing down names that men fell out of their mouths.

Public opinion turned against the police on the matter, and on April 22, 1879 the rest of the sympathizers were released. No one received money or was returned to their hometowns; everyone had to find their way back "25, 30 and even 50 miles" on their own. The treatment of the 23 men sparked resentment at the government's abuse of power, which led to media condemnation and a wave of support for the gang that had helped evade capture for so long.

Jerilderie raid

The gang hold up the Jerilderie Police Station.

According to a Coonamble resident who met the Kellys in Glenrowan, Ned had heard a person named Sullivan testified and traveled by train from Melbourne to Rutherglen. The Kelly gang then followed him there, but was told he was going across the New South Wales border to Uralla. When they got to Uralla, Sullivan had left for Wagga Wagga. They followed him there but lost sight of him. Kelly believed he might have traveled to Hay, so they started in that direction but later gave up their hunt. On their return home they passed Jerilderie, and the gang then decided to rob the bank.

However, according to JJ Kenneally, the gang arrived at Jerilderie after crossing the Murray River in Burramine. The group had heard of an intersection there where they could swim their horses from, but didn't know where the landing site was on the opposite side of the river, and had Tom Lloyd investigate (the river was guarded by border patrols). After trying unsuccessfully to cross himself on his own, Lloyd hired the help of a nearby hotel owner who pulled him over in a boat with Lloyd's horse paddling behind him. After reporting the voyage to the rest of the gang, the group used the boat to cross it on two voyages. Dan Kelly and Steve Hart arrived at Davidson's Hotel two miles south of Jerilderie on Saturday, February 2, 1879, in time for tea, while the others waited in a different area.

At around midnight on February 8, the gang surrounded the Jerilderie Police Station. Ned rode forward and called to the cops to come out. He claimed there had been a fight at Davidson's hotel. Police officers George Devine and Henry Richards appeared and asked the stranger for more information. When Ned found that there were no other cops inside, the gang held her up and locked her in a cell. Mary, Devine's wife, and her children were held hostage at the house when Ned stole all the guns and ammunition. After that, he let her go back to sleep and stayed with the rest of the gang in the dining room until morning.

There was a chapel in the courthouse, 100 meters from the barracks. Ms. Devine's job was to prepare the courthouse for mass. The next day, Sunday, she was allowed to do so, but was accompanied by one of the Kellys. At around 10 a.m., Kelly stayed in the courthouse and helped Ms. Devine prepare the altar and wipe the molds. When that was done, Kelly escorted her back to the barracks, where the door was closed and the blinds pulled to give the impression that the Devines were outside. Hart and Dan Kelly, dressed in police uniforms, walked to and from the stables during the day without realizing it.

On Monday morning, Byrne shoeed two horses, but the blacksmith suspected something strange in his way, and so he noticed the marks on the horse (according to Kenneally, the blacksmith was impressed with the quality of these so-called police horses and therefore noticed their marks; even after this version was shoeing of horses billed to the government of New South Wales). Around 10 a.m. the Kellys left the barracks with their hostage Constable Richards, closely followed by Hart and Byrne on horseback. They all went to the Royal Hotel, where Cox, the landlord, told Richards that his companions were the Kellys. Ned Kelly said they wanted rooms at the Royal and revealed his intentions to rob the bank. Hart and Byrne rode back and told the groom to stabilize their horses but not to feed them. Hart went into the hotel kitchen, a few yards from the bank's back entrance. Byrne then stepped into the back of the bank when he met the accountant, Mr. Living, who told him to use the front entrance. Byrne showed his revolver and made him surrender. Kenneally wrote, "The shock made Living stutter and it was claimed that he stuttered for the rest of his life." Byrne led him and Mackie, the junior accountant, into the bar where Dan Kelly was on guard. Ned Kelly secured the bank manager, Mr. Tarleton, who was hired to open the safes. When that was done, he was brought together with the others. All were released at a quarter to three.

After the manager was secured, Ned took Kelly Living back to the bank and asked him how much money they had. Life costs between £ 600 and £ 700. Living then gave him the cashier's money, £ 691. Kelly asked if they had more money and Living said no. Kelly tried to open the safe's treasure drawer and one of the keys was given to him. but he needed the second key. Byrne tried to break it open with a sledgehammer but Kelly got the key from the cashier and found £ 1650 for a total of £ 2141 stolen from the bank. Kelly noticed a box of certificates. The group then went to the hotel where Kelly burned three or four bank books of mortgage documents to clear the debt and cause losses for the banks, without realizing that some copies were being kept in the title office in Sydney.

Before leaving the hotel, Kelly gave a speech to the hostages, mostly about the Fitzpatrick incident and the Stringybark murders. Then he put his revolver on the counter and announced, "Anyone here can take him and shoot me, but if I get shot Jerilderie will be swimming in his own blood." As the "Roughs" cheered Kelly on, he learned that Hart had previously stolen a watch from a local Methodist clergyman, Reverend JB Gribble, and forced him to return it. The bus drivers then went to some other hotels, treated everyone politely and had a drink. Hart took a new saddle from the saddler. Two great police horses were taken and other horses searched, but residents claimed they belonged to women and McDougall, in order to keep his racing mare, "protested that he was a comparatively poor man," and Kelly relented. The telegraph operators were also arrested. Byrne took possession of the office and destroyed all telegrams sent that day and cut all wires. The group left around 7 p.m. in an unknown direction. The police, disarmed and not released, had no other option to follow the gang.

Jerilderie letter

I would like to acquaint you with some events in the present past and future.

-  Opening line of the Jerilderie letter

Months before arriving in Jerilderie, Kelly penned a long letter aiming to trace his path to illegality, justify his actions, and outline the alleged injustices he and his family had suffered from the police. He also opposes Victoria's Squattocracy's treatment of poor selector families, invoking "a mythical tradition of Irish rebellion" against what he calls "the tyrannism of the English yoke" in "an escalating promise of vengeance and retribution". Byrne, it is known as the Jerilderie Letter and is a handwritten document of 56 pages and 7,391 words. While holding Jerilderie up, Kelly gave Edwin Living, a local bank accountant, the letter he called "a slice of my life" and asked him to send it to the editor of the Jerilderie and Urana Gazette to hand over for publication. Due to political repression, only excerpts were published in the press based on a copy transcribed by John Hanlon, owner of the Eight Mile Hotel in Deniliquin. The entire letter was rediscovered and published in 1930.

The letter was Kelly's second attempt to chronicle his life and times. The first, known as the Cameron Letter, was sent to Donald Cameron, a member of the Victorian Parliament, in December 1878. It was shorter than the Jerilderie Letter and also intended for a broad readership, but only a summary was published in the press.

The original Jerilderie letter was donated to the State Library of Victoria in 2000, and Hanlon's transcript is in the Canberra National Museum of Australia. According to historian Alex McDermott, "Kelly inserts himself into history with his own voice on his own terms. ... We hear the living speaker in ways that no other document in our history has achieved." It was interpreted as a proto-republican manifesto; for others it's a "gruesome, ... crazy joke" and "a remarkable glimpse into Kelly's grandiosity". Known for its unorthodox grammar, the letter reaches "delirious poetics", Kelly's language is "hyperbolic, allusive, hallucinatory ... full of striking metaphors and images". His verbal abuse and sense of humor are also there; In a well-known passage, he calls the Victorian Police "a package of big, ugly sons of Irish bailiffs or English landlords with big bellies, big bellies, magpie legs, narrow hips and pointed feet" Irish bailiffs or English landlords. The letter concludes:

Neglect this and stick to the consequences which will be worse than the rust in the wheat of Victoria or the drought of the locusts in New South Wales. I don't want to give the command full power without warning in time. but I am an outlawed widow's son and my orders have to must be followed.

Reward increase and disappearance

£ 8,000 reward for conquering the Kelly Gang, equivalent to $ 1.5 million in modern Australian currency

In response to the attack on the Jerilderie, the New South Wales government and several banks jointly spent £ 4,000 on capturing the gang, dead or alive. This was the largest reward offered in the colony since £ 5,000, since £ 5,000 was placed on the heads of the banned Clarke brothers since 1867, when the Victorian government agreed to the offer for the Kelly gang, bringing the total to £ 8,000 , the greatest bushranging reward ever. The Board of Officers, which included Captain Standish, Superintendents Hare and Sadleir, centralized all decisions regarding the search for the Kelly gang. The reward money had a demoralizing effect on them: "The capture of the Kellys was desired by these officers, but they were very jealous of where they would come in if the reward money were allocated. This led to very serious disputes among them. . "

From the beginning of March 1879 to June 1880 nothing was heard about the whereabouts of the gang. Like Thomas Aubrey in his Mirror article from 1953 wrote,