Capillary tubes are always cylindrical

DE19926205A1 - Capillary for mapping objects in the vacuum ultraviolet range - Google Patents

Capillary for imaging objects in the vacuum ultraviolet range

info

Publication number
DE19926205A1
DE19926205A1DE1999126205DE19926205ADE19926205A1DE 19926205 A1DE19926205 A1DE 19926205A1DE 1999126205 DE1999126205 DE 1999126205DE 19926205 ADE19926205 ADE 19926205ADE 19926205 A1DE1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
capillary
axis
rotation
coaxial
vacuum ultraviolet
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
DE1999126205
Other languages
English (en)
Other versions
DE19926205C2 (de
Inventor
Ulrich Gerhardt
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
SPECS SOCIETY FOR SURFACE ANALYSIS U, DE
Original assignee
Ulrich Gerhardt
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Ulrich GerhardtfiledCriticalUlrich Gerhardt
Priority to DE1999126205priorityCriticalpatent / DE19926205C2 / de
Publication of DE19926205A1publicationCriticalpatent / DE19926205A1 / de
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE19926205C2publicationCriticalpatent / DE19926205C2 / de
Anticipated expirationlegal-statusCritical
Expired - Lifetimelegal-statusCriticalCurrent

Left

  • 210000001736CapillariesAnatomy0.000titleclaimsabstractdescription47
  • 230000000875correspondingEffects0.000claimsdescription7
  • 239000002131composite materialsSubstances0.000claimsdescription2
  • 238000009304 pastoral farmingMethods0.000claimsdescription2
  • 238000003384imaging methodMethods0.000claims1
  • 230000004907fluxEffects0.000description6
  • 239000007789gasesSubstances0.000description3
  • 238000005086 pumpingMethods0.000description2
  • 210000002381PlasmaAnatomy0.000description1
  • 238000004519 manufacturing processMethods0.000description1
  • 238000000034methodsMethods0.000description1
  • 238000001420photoelectron spectroscopyMethods0.000description1
  • 238000002186 photoelectron spectrumMethods0.000description1
  • 229910052904quartzInorganic materials0.000description1
  • 239000010453quartzSubstances0.000description1
  • 238000002310reflectometryMethods0.000description1
  • 230000000717retainedEffects0.000description1
  • 229910001885silicon dioxideInorganic materials0.000description1
  • 238000001228spectrumMethods0.000description1
  • 230000003313weakeningEffects0.000description1

Classifications

    • G — PHYSICS
    • G21-NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21K — TECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING PARTICLES OR IONIZING RADIATION NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; IRRADIATION DEVICES; GAMMA RAY OR X-RAY MICROSCOPES
    • G21K1 / 00 — Arrangements for handling particles or ionizing radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating
    • G21K1 / 06 — Arrangements for handling particles or ionizing radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating using diffraction, refraction or reflection, e.g. monochromators
    • G — PHYSICS
    • G02 — OPTICS
    • G02B — OPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6 / 00 — Light guides
    • G02B6 / 24 — Coupling light guides
    • G02B6 / 241 — Light guide terminations
    • G — PHYSICS
    • G02 — OPTICS
    • G02B — OPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6 / 00 — Light guides
    • G02B6 / 24 — Coupling light guides
    • G02B6 / 42 — Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6 / 4298 — Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements coupling with non-coherent light sources and / or radiation detectors, e.g. lamps, incandescent bulbs, scintillation chambers

Abstract

Description

In the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range, quartz capillaries with a cylindrical bore are typically used for photoelectron spectroscopy in order to guide the VUV radiation generated in the plasmas of gas discharge sources onto, for example, atomically clean single-crystal surfaces prepared in an ultra-high vacuum. The VUV radiation releases photoelectrons from these crystals, the energy and angular distribution of which contains important information about the electronic structure of these crystals. The capillaries are used both as light guides and as pressure stages for the differential pumping, which increases by a factor of about 10 compared to the gas discharge source-7 allows lower pressure in the measuring chamber.
The low pressure of approx. 10 is required for the recording of usable photoelectron spectra-8 Pa in the measuring chamber is just as necessary as a high flux density d2 N / (dt.dA) of the photons on the crystal (N = number of photons, t = time, A = area): Due to the contamination of the crystal surface by gas adsorption, the service life of the sample decreases with increasing pressure, while that in the spectrum is within the signal-to-noise ratio that can be achieved increases with the flux density. Opposing requirements are therefore placed on the capillary geometry.
In the VUV, at the usual angles of incidence α, the reflectivity is R «1; one therefore works with grazing incidence close to the limit case R (α = 90 °) = 1 in order to keep the intensity losses in the reflections small. The conventional cylindrical capillaries limit the flux density d available on the crystal surface2 N / (dt.dA) threefold: Firstly, R decreases with increasing glancing angle β = 90 ° - α between the capillary axis and the incident beam, while secondly the number n of reflections in the capillary increases and thus the intensity of the beam under consideration the factor Rn is reduced, thirdly, the photon flux dN / dt illuminates an area on the crystal that is larger than the capillary cross-section because of the divergence of the beam emerging from the capillary and the necessary distance between the crystal surface and the end of the capillary.
In the Fig. 1 shown capillary (1) avoids the above-described threefold weakening of the flux density available on the crystal surface through the conventional cylindrical capillary by being made up of several elements coaxial to the capillary axis (2) is composed and that the reflective inner surface of this composite capillary lare with the central part of the corresponding elongated ellipsoid of revolution (3) coincides whose focal points (4) lie on the capillary axis outside the capillary: The ones emanating from one of the two focal points and into the capillary (1) Incident rays are always reflected at a glancing angle β, which is less than or at most equal to the corresponding β for the cylindrical capillary, in addition, who in the capillary (1) these rays are only reflected once, while for cylindrical capillaries n ≧ 1 and usually even n »1 applies, and finally such rays are bundled in the second focal point, which is expediently placed in the crystal surface to be examined, which is then compared to cylindrical ones Capillaries lead to a reduction in the area illuminated on the crystal and thus to a further increase in the flux density. Just like cylindrical capillaries, the capillary (1) serve as a pressure stage in differential pumping. In contrast to a one-piece capillary with the same inner surface and the same length, the composite capillary (1) also produce them with known technical processes.
Claims 2 and 3 relate to a simplified production of the inner surfaces of the elements, which in sections approximate the ideal surface of the ellipsoid of revolution to such an extent that the advantages of the capillary (1) are largely retained compared to cylindrical capillaries. The design of the inner surfaces of the elements according to claim 4 ensures that no steps which reduce the flow of photons through the capillary occur between adjacent elements. The Fig. 1 shows, as an example, a possible embodiment of the assembled capillary (1), in which the elements (2) according to claim 5 through the jacket pipe (5) coaxial to the axis of the capillary, d. H. be held to the axis of rotation of the ideal ellipsoid.

Claims (5)

1. A capillary for imaging approximately punctiform objects or sources, preferably in the range of the vacuum ultraviolet, in which the rays contributing to the imaging are reflected on the inner surface of the capillary with almost grazing incidence, characterizedthat the capillary (1) from several elements coaxial to the capillary axis (2) is composed and that the reflective inner surface of this composite capillary with the central part of the corresponding elongated ellipsoid of revolution (3) coincides whose focal points (4) lie on the capillary axis outside the capillary.
2. A capillary according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner surface of each element approximates the corresponding section of the ellipsoid of revolution in that the intersection of the inner surface of the element in a plane containing the axis of rotation with respect to its distance from the axis of rotation, its slope and its Curvature is adapted to the corresponding sizes of the cut ellipse in the area of ​​the element under consideration.
3. A capillary according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner surface of each element approximates the corresponding section of the ellipsoid of revolution in that the line of intersection of the inner surface of the element in a plane containing the axis of rotation only with respect to its distance from the axis of rotation and its slope the corresponding sizes of the cut ellipse is adapted in the area of ​​the element under consideration.
4. A capillary according to claims 2 or 3, characterized in that the circles of intersection of the inner surfaces for all adjacent elements coincide in the planes perpendicular to the axis of rotation in which the adjacent elements touch.
5. A capillary according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the elements (2) in a casing tube coaxial to the axis of the capillary (5) are held together according to the invention.
DE19991262051999-06-091999-06-09Capillary for imaging objects in the area of ​​the vacuum ultraviolet Expired - LifetimeDE19926205C2 (de)

Priority Applications (1)

Application NumberPriority DateFiling dateTitle
DE1999126205DE19926205C2 (de) 1999-06-091999-06-09Capillary for imaging objects in the vacuum ultraviolet range

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application NumberPriority DateFiling dateTitle
DE1999126205DE19926205C2 (de) 1999-06-091999-06-09Capillary for imaging objects in the vacuum ultraviolet range

Publications (2)

ID = 7910626

Family Applications (1)

Application NumberTitlePriority DateFiling date
DE1999126205Expired - LifetimeDE19926205C2 (de) 1999-06-091999-06-09Capillary for imaging objects in the vacuum ultraviolet range

Country Status (1)

Citations (3)

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle
DE19527794A1 (de) *1995-07-191997-01-23Ifg Inst für Geraetebau GmbHMethod and device for the production of optical elements for capillary optics
DE19705732A1 (de) *1996-02-171997-10-30China Aerospace CorpMethods of making monolithic capillary x-ray lenses, monolithic capillary x-ray lenses, and devices using such a lens
EP0883136A1 (de) *1997-06-071998-12-09Horiba, Ltd.Converging mirror for X-rays

Patent Citations (3)

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle
DE19527794A1 (de) *1995-07-191997-01-23Ifg Inst für Geraetebau GmbHMethod and device for the production of optical elements for capillary optics
DE19705732A1 (de) *1996-02-171997-10-30China Aerospace CorpMethods of making monolithic capillary x-ray lenses, monolithic capillary x-ray lenses, and devices using such a lens
EP0883136A1 (de) *1997-06-071998-12-09Horiba, Ltd.Converging mirror for X-rays

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Legal events

DatecodeTitleDescription
OP8Request for examination as to paragraph 44 patent law
D2Grant after examination
8364No opposition during term of opposition
8327Change in the person / name / address of the patent owner

Owner name: SPECS SOCIETY FOR SURFACE ANALYSIS U, DE

8381Inventor (new situation)

Inventor name: GERHARDT, ULRICH, PROF. DR., 61462 KOENIGSTEIN, DE

R071Expiry of right