How many Bangaloreans are studying at Manipal University

Bangalore / b æ ŋ ɡ ə lɔː r /, officially known as Bengaluru [12] ([Beŋɡəɭuːɾu] (listen) ) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than 8,000,000 and a metropolitan population of around 11 million, making it the third largest city and fifth largest metropolitan area in India. [13] Located in South India on the Deccan Plateau, Bangalore is at an altitude of over 900m above sea level and is known for its pleasant climate all year round. Its height is the highest among the major cities of India. [14]

Bengaluru
Nicknames:
Silicon Valley of India, [1] Garden city [2]
Coordinates: 12 ° 58'44 '' N 77 ° 35'30 '' E. /. 12.97889 ° N 77.59167 ° E. / 12.97889; 77.59167Coordinates: 12 ° 58'44 "N 77 ° 35'30" E. /. 12.97889 ° N 77.59167 ° E. / 12.97889; 77.59167
countryIndia
StatusKarnataka
regionBayaluseemé
circleBangalore Urban
Established1537
Founded byKempe Gowda I.
government
• ArtUrban society
• Body
• Administrator
(in the absence of the mayor)
Gaurav Gupta, IAS [3]
Area
• Metropolis709 km 2 (274 square miles)
• Subway 8,005 km 2 (3,091 sq mi)
elevation 920 m (3,020 ft)
population
• Metropolis8,443,675
• Rank3 ..
• Density12,000 / km 2 (31,000 / km²)
• Urban10.456.000
• Rank 5 ..
Demonym (s)Bangalorean, Bengalurinavaru, Bengalurean, Bengaluriga
Time zoneUTC + 05: 30 (IST)
PIN code (s)
Area code (s)+ 91- (0) 80
Vehicle registrationKA- 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 41, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
Metro GDP$ 45-83 billion [10]
Official languageKannada [11]
websitewww .bbmp .gov .in

The city's history dates back to around 890 AD in a stone inscription found in the Nageshwara Temple in Begur, Bangalore. The Begur inscription is written in Halegannada (old Kannada) and mentions 'Bengaluru Kalaga' (Battle of Bengaluru). It was a significant turning point in the history of Bangalore as it contains the earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru". [15] In 1537 AD, Kempé Gowdā - a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire - built a mud fortress that served as the basis of modern Bengaluru and its oldest territories or Pete applies that exist to this day. After the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire in the 16th century, the Mughals sold Bangalore for three lakh rupees to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. [16] When Haider Ali took control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands. It was captured by the British East India Company after the victory in the fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), which returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old town developed under the rule of the Maharajah of Mysore and became the capital of the princely state of Mysore, which existed as the nominally sovereign unit of the British Raj. In 1809 the British moved their canton to Bangalore, outside the Old City, and a city emerged around them that was ruled as part of British India. After India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of the state of Mysore and remained the capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was established in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore - city and canton - which had developed as independent units, merged into a single city center in 1949. The existing Kannada name Bengalūru was declared the city's official name in 2006.

Bangalore is widely regarded as the "Silicon Valley of India" (or "IT Capital of India") due to its role as a leading information technology (IT) exporter. [1] Indian technology organizations are headquartered in the city. Bangalore is a demographically diverse city and the second fastest growing major metropolis in India. [17] [18] Recent estimates of its metro economy in its metropolitan area have ranked Bangalore as either the fourth or fifth most productive metro area in India. [10] [19] In Bangalore is home to 7,700 millionaires and 8 billionaires with total assets of $ 320 billion. [20] [21] Many educational and research institutions are located here. There are numerous state aerospace and defense organizations in the city. The city is also home to the Kannada film industry.

etymology

The name "Bangalore" represents an Anglicized version of the Kannada language name and its original name "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು [ˈ Beŋɡəɭuːru] (Listen ). It is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore and was used by Kempegowda to baptize the city as Bangalore at the time of its founding. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a stone inscription from the western Ganga dynasty from the 9th century. Century on a "vīra gallu"(ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು) found (literally" hero stone ", a rock edict praising the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found inBegur," Bengalūrū "is referred to as the place where a battle was fought in 890 AD. It is said that the place up to 1004Part of theGanga Kingdom was and as "Bengaval-uru", the" City of Guards "in Halegannada (old Kannada). [22][23]

An apocryphal story tells that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II got lost in the forest on a hunting expedition. Tired and hungry, he met a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (literally "city of boiled beans"), which eventually developed into "Bengalūru". [22] [24] [25] Suryanath Kamath has an explanation for a possible floral origin of the name submitted that of Benga derived is , the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium (also called Indian Cinema tree known), a dry species and moist deciduous trees that grew abundantly in the region. [26]

On December 11, 2005, the Karnataka government announced that it had accepted a proposal to name Jnanpith Award winner UR Ananthamurthy Bangalore Bengaluru . [27] On September 27, 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change. [28] The government of Karnataka accepted the proposal and it was decided to officially implement the name change from November 1, 2006. [29] [30] The Union government approved this application along with name changes for 11 other cities in Karnataka in October 2014, so on November 1, 2014, Bangalore was renamed "Bengaluru". [31] [32]

history

Early and medieval history

A discovery of Stone Age artifacts during India's 2001 census in Jalahalli, Sidhapura, and Jadigenahalli, all now on the outskirts of Bangalore, suggests a likely human settlement around 4000 BC. Chr. Hin. [33] Around 1,000 BC BC (Iron Age) tombs were built in Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius and Claudius found in Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that the region was founded in 27 BC. Participated in the transoceanic trade with the Romans and other civilizations. [34]

The region of what is now Bangalore was part of several successive South Indian kingdoms. Between the fourth and tenth centuries, the Bangalore region was ruled by the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka, the first dynasty to establish effective control over the region. [35] After Edgar Thurston [36] there were twenty-eight kings who ruled Gangavadi from the beginning of the Christian era until it was conquered by the Cholas. These kings belonged to two different dynasties: the earlier line of Solar race, which had a succession of seven kings of the Ratti or Reddi tribe, and the later line of the Ganga race. The western Gangas ruled the region first as a sovereign power (350-550) and later as the feudatory of the Chalukyas of Badami, followed by the Rashtrakutas until the tenth century. [26] The Begur Nageshwara Temple was commissioned around 860 during the reign of the western Ganga king Ereganga Nitimarga I and was expanded by his successor Nitimarga II. [37] [38] Around 1004, during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, the Cholas defeated the western Gangas under the command of Crown Prince Rajendra Chola I and conquered Bangalore. [37] [39] During this time, the Bangalore area witnessed the migration of many groups - warriors, administrators, traders, artisans, pastorals, cultivators, and religious personnel from Tamil Nadu and other Kannada speaking regions. [35] The Chokkanathaswamy Temple in Domlur, the Aigandapura Complex near Hesaraghatta, the Mukthi Natheshwara Temple in Binnamangala, the Choleshwara Temple in Begur and the Someshwara Temple in Madiwala date from the Chola period. [37]

In 1117 the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana defeated the Cholas at the Battle of Talakad in the south of Karnataka and extended his rule over the region. [37] Vishnuvardhana expelled the Cholas from all parts of the state of Mysore. [40] At the end of the 13th century, Bangalore became a point of contention between two belligerent cousins, Hoysala rulers Veera Ballala III of Halebidu and Ramanatha, who administered from Hoysala Territory in Tamil Nadu. [37] Veera Ballala III had made a citizen of Hudi (now within the boundaries of the Bangalore Municipal Corporation), promoting the village to city status. After the death of Veera Ballala III in 1343, the Vijayanagara Empire was the next empire to rule the region. Four dynasties emerged here, the Sangamas (1336–1485), the Saluvas (1485–1491) and the Tuluvas (1491–) 1565) and the Aravidu (1565–1646). [41] During the reign of the Vijayanagara Empire, Achyuta Deva Raya from the Tuluva dynasty built the Shivasamudra dam over the Arkavati River in Hesaraghatta, the reservoir of which supplies the present-day city with regular tap water. [42]

Foundation and early modern history