What elements are in carbohydrates
What are carbohydrates?
The main carbohydrates are sugar and starch. They form a biologically and chemically important class of substances. As a product of photosynthesis, carbohydrates make up the largest part of biomass. Carbohydrates are converted into energy in our body. All carbohydrates have the same chemical components: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The different proportions of these components determine the quality of the carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are divided into:
• Simple sugars or monosaccharides, e.g. B. fructose or grape sugar.
• disaccharides or disaccharides, e.g. B. malt, milk or table sugar.
• Polysaccharides or polysaccharides, e.g. B. vegetable and animal starch.
Carbohydrates = sugar
This division shows that carbohydrates are just another word for sugar. Sugar is the real source of energy. The single and double sugars provide energy almost immediately. You are z. B. dangerous for diabetics because they immediately raise blood sugar levels. Multiple sugars must first be broken down for recycling. Therefore, they are slow to raise blood sugar levels.
The sugar requirement should best be met by natural carbohydrates. These are found in grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In addition to sugar, they also contain fiber, starch, vitamins, minerals and trace elements, which are also important for the body. Carbohydrates are also abundant in bread, pasta, rice, sweets, dishes made from white flour and sugary sodas. Likewise in potatoes, fruits and legumes.
However, these foods contain different types of carbohydrates. While sweets and sweet sodas consist of quickly digestible sugars, more complex carbohydrates are found in legumes and whole grain bread, for example. Quickly digestible variants cause blood sugar to skyrocket and usually only fill you up for a short time. The body's own hormone insulin is released due to the high blood sugar content. It causes sugar, or more precisely glucose, to move from the blood to the cells. At the same time, insulin promotes the formation of fat and inhibits its breakdown. During the day, the body mostly covers its energy needs through food. At night the organism attacks its own reserves to get energy. And that happens, among other things, through the breakdown of fats.
We digest complex sugars more slowly, they only cause blood glucose to rise moderately and we feel satiated for much longer.
Pure white sugar or ground flours are empty foods. They contain nothing but calories. White bread and cakes do not even provide the vitamins and minerals necessary for their digestion. This means that the body does get energy, but the vital building materials must be taken from the reserve storage. This leads to long-term deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. By the way: dietary fiber is not superfluous ballast. They stimulate the bowel movement. In almost all gastrointestinal diseases, a lack of fiber can be determined.
The body cannot use carbohydrates, which are a string of sugar molecules, directly. They are converted to glycogen (grape sugar) in the body and then stored in the liver and muscle cells. However, the storage space is limited. When it is full, the rest is converted into fat and goes to the fat deposits. For this reason, too, it is important to meet your carbohydrate needs with high-quality foods.
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