Is Indonesia a transcontinental country
Environment of Indonesia - Environment of Indonesia
The environment Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands scattered on both sides of the equator. The size of Indonesia, the tropical climate and the archipelago geography support the second highest biodiversity in the world after Brazil.
Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialization are serious environmental problems that are often given a lower priority due to high levels of poverty and poor governance with limited resources. Problems include widespread deforestation (much of which is illegal) and related forest fires that are causing heavy smog in parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Overexploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems related to rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, waste management and reliable water and sanitation services. Deforestation and the destruction of moors make Indonesia the third largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world. Habitat destruction threatens the survival of native and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals classified as threatened by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and 15 as critically endangered, including the Sumatran orangutan.
Indonesia performed below average, but slightly improved, on the Global Environmental Performance Index (EPI), with an overall ranking of 107 out of 180 countries in 2016. This is also below average in the Asia-Pacific region behind Thailand, but slightly ahead of China. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global measure of measuring the performance of individual countries in implementing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The environmental areas where Indonesia scores worst (that is, the highest rated) are water resources management (128), environmental impacts of fisheries (127) and forest management (109), closely followed by sanitation. Sewage treatment plans are expected to improve conditions somewhat in the future. Indonesia performs best (ie lowest) on climate and energy (41), mainly due to excellent access to electricity rather than CO2 emissions from electricity generation. The health effects of environmental problems (78) as well as biodiversity and habitat (83) are also above average.
Indonesia is seriously at risk from the projected effects of climate change. If emissions are not reduced, an average temperature increase of around 1 ° C is projected to be 0.3 ° C per decade by mid-century. This equates to almost twice the frequency of extremely hot days (with temperatures above 35 ° C) per year through 2030. This number is expected to increase to almost one in three days by the end of the century. Rising temperatures can increase the frequency and severity of drafts and food shortages, as this will have a severe impact on the rainfall and rainy and dry season patterns on which Indonesia's agricultural system is based (and has already had). It will also promote diseases like dengue and malaria, and increase the number of forest fires that threaten the country's vast rainforest areas.
Climate change has and will have other serious effects in the form of rising sea levels. Since Indonesia is the largest archipelago state in the world at current rates, rising sea levels will mean that 42 million Indonesian households on 2000 islands will be at risk of submerging by the middle of this century. Over 60% of Indonesia's population live in low-lying coastal areas, including Jakarta, which is particularly at risk as 40% of the city is below sea level and subsiding rapidly, putting large numbers of people at risk of displacement.
All of this is likely to hit poorer communities the most. Over 50% of Indonesia's population live on less than $ 2 a day, and the poor will bear the brunt of the catastrophic effects of climate change, including death, disease and displacement, "as they are typically the most vulnerable to the effects of Drought, floods and landslides and seek livelihoods that are heavily dependent on climate sensitive sectors (i.e. fisheries and forestry). "
Deforestation in Indonesia means the long-term loss of forests and leaves in large parts of the country. It has had a massive environmental and social impact. Indonesia is home to some of the most biologically diverse forests in the world and ranks third in species number after Brazil and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In 1900 Indonesia was still a densely forested country: Forests made up 84 percent of the total land area. Deforestation increased in the 1970s and has accelerated since then. The estimated forest area of 170 million hectares around 1900 had decreased to less than 100 million hectares by the end of the 20th century. In 2008, it was estimated that tropical rainforests in Indonesia would be deregistered in a decade. Of all deforestation in Indonesia, up to 80% is illegal.
Large areas of forest in Indonesia have been cleared and replaced with plantations by large multinational pulp companies such as Asia Pulp and Paper. Forests are often burned by farmers and plantation owners. Another major source of deforestation is the timber industry, which is driven by demand from China and Japan. Agricultural development and transmigration programs have moved large populations to rainforest areas and further increased deforestation rates.The deforestation and burning of forests to clear land for cultivation has made Indonesia the third largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world after China and the United States. Forest fires often destroy high capacity carbon sinks, including ancient rainforests and bogs. In May 2011, Indonesia declared a moratorium on new logging contracts to combat this. This appeared to be ineffective in the short term as the rate of deforestation continued to rise. By 2012, Indonesia had exceeded the rate of deforestation in Brazil and was the fastest deforestation nation in the world.
Environmental policy and law
Treaties and international agreements
Indonesia has signed a number of treaties and international agreements:
- Contracting party - biodiversity, climate change, desertification, endangered species, hazardous waste, maritime law, ban on nuclear tests, protection of the ozone layer, ship pollution, tropical timber 83, tropical timber 94, wetlands
- Signed and ratified - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
- Signed but not ratified - Marine Life Conservations
Domestic environmental laws
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