Where is the Anatolia region located

Cities, rivers and neighboring countries at a glance

Turkey extends geographically over two continents. Anatolia, the Asian part of the Turkish national territory, takes up about 97% of the area. Eastern Thrace forms the European part, it covers about 3% of the country's area (23,623 km²).

The national borders of Turkey have a total length of approx. 9,850 km, of which 7,200 km are bordered by the sea. The Aegean Sea lies in the west of Turkey, the Mediterranean Sea in the south and the Black Sea in the north. In addition, Turkey shares a border with eight neighboring countries with a total length of 2,648 km. In the northwest it borders on Greece (206 km border) and Bulgaria (240 km), in the northeast on Georgia (252 km), Armenia (268 km), Azerbaijan (exclave and autonomous republic of Nakhichevan, 9 km), in the east on Iran (499 km) and in the south to Iraq (352 km) and Syria (822 km). The politically divided island of Cyprus with the Republic of Cyprus and the internationally not recognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are also not far from the Turkish coast.

The north of Turkey in particular is one of the most earthquake-prone regions in the world and has been repeatedly hit by earthquakes in recent years. Since there is a certain chronological east-west sequence of the earthquakes in northern Turkey, experts assume that Istanbul could also be shaken by a major quake in the foreseeable future. The last major quakes in Kocaeli Province were less than 100 km from Istanbul.

Landscape image

1.) Marmara region, (Marmara) 2.) Central Anatolia, (IcAnadolu) 3.) Aegean region, (Ege) 4.) Mediterranean region, (Akdeniz)
5.) Black Sea Region, (Karadeniz) 6.) Southeast Anatolia, (GüneydoguAnadolu) 7.) Eastern Anatolia. (DoguAnadolu).

Turkey is divided into seven geographic areas or regions: Marmara Region, Aegean Region, Black Sea Region, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean Region, Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. These regions differ greatly in terms of vegetation and weather conditions.


Geographical areas of Turkey

Thrace is west of the Bosphorus on the European side. On the Thracian plateau, the Meriç river forms the border with Greece. The Marmara region lies to the east of the Bosporus. The Sea of ​​Marmara separates Europe from Asia and the Aegean Sea from the Black Sea. The Dardanelles extend over a length of 60 km towards the Mediterranean Sea. The two headlands are widest at Çanakkalemit up to 4 km. The metropolis of İstanbul is located on the Bosporus. The landscape in this region is hilly and covered with bushes and forests. The fertile arable soil gives way to a steppe landscape in the east. The region forms the economic center of Turkey. The megacity of Bursa is a health resort and famous for its sulfur and thermal springs. It lies at the foot of the Uludağ Mountains. The mountain is a popular destination all year round.

The Aegean region is also used intensively for agriculture. The hilly landscape stretches along the west coast between Çanakkale and Bodrum. The coastal region is one of the best tourist regions in Turkey. In addition to cypresses and olive trees, grapevines characterize the landscape. In this region there are many ancient buildings from the time of the Greek settlement, e.g. B. Troy, Assos (Behramkale), Pergamon (Bergama), Ephesus (Efes), Priene, Miletus, Didyma and Euromos.

The Black Sea region comprises the northern coastal strip of Turkey. It is characterized by a mild, humid climate, and large forests extend over its mountainous landscape. Tea, tobacco, corn and hazelnuts are grown on the very fertile soil.

The Central Anatolian region comprises the inner Anatolian plateaus. The TuzGölü salt lake and mountain ranges, which in places rise up to 3,900 m, are located here. In the east lies Cappadocia, which is famous for its caves carved into tuff and rock churches in mountain cones up to 2,000 m high. Inner Anatolia is predominantly characterized by a steppe landscape and is one of the driest areas in Anatolia; in the region around the TuzGölü the landscape takes on a desert-like shape. For this reason, agricultural use in this region is not as developed as in the regions mentioned above. Mainly wheat, barley and fruit are grown here. The climate of this region is characterized by hot, dry summers with cold evenings. The winters are very cold with temperatures below −20 degrees Celsius.

The Mediterranean region is bordered by the Taurus Mountains in the north and the Amanos Mountains in the east. In this region, mainly citrus fruits, bananas, tomatoes, peanuts and cotton are grown.

Van Castle on Lake Van in eastern Turkey

Southeast Anatolia is the oldest cultural region in Turkey. It is enclosed by the Taurus Mountains. The two rivers Euphrates (Firat) and Tigris (Dicle) run here. This region is used agriculturally for the cultivation of wheat, barley, wine, olives and pistachios. In addition to mountain ranges, the region east of the Euphrates is characterized by a high plateau. For further agricultural cultivation, more than 22 dams are being built along the Euphrates and Tigris as part of the Southeast Anatolia project.

Flora and fauna

The area of ​​Turkey is taken up to 26.2% by forest, 36.3% of the total area is used for agriculture.

Turkey's flora is considered to be the most diverse and varied in the Middle East. There are around 9,000 plant species with 850 genera; in the south mainly plants that have adapted to the dry summers, e.g. B. evergreen hedges and bushes, oak trees, olive and carob trees. Wild flowers and ground cover are native to the plateaus.

The steppes are dominated by shrubs, coniferous forests and black pines, the dry areas also by thistles and cactus plants (thorn pads). In the north, especially on the Black Sea coast, there are extensive hazelnut, corn and tea plantations, in the south more fruit and cotton plantations.

There are also many species of small game and wild boar at home, although their numbers are constantly being decimated by hunting. The main farm animals are cattle, horses, buffalo, sheep and goats. The camel population has steadily declined over the past few decades; today they are bred primarily for sporting competitions and no longer as load carriers.

The largest predators still living in Turkey today include the brown bear, wolf, golden jackal and Eurasian lynx. The last Turkish leopard is said to have been shot by a farmer in Hakkari in 1979.

Turkey is a breeding and wintering place for numerous bird species. South of Bandırma - in the Kuşcenneti National Park - there is a well-known bird paradise, where pelicans, wild ducks, storks, cormorants, nightingales and pheasants have found their home.