Absorbs water fertilizer
What effects does the manure have on the environment?
Liquid manure is applied to the soil and incorporated, but through leaching and outgassing it can have a further influence on the environment, such as animal and plant species, soil, water and air.
If manure gets into bodies of water, the nutrients in the manure affect it. If there is too much nitrogen and, above all, phosphate, they can "eutrophicate" in a lengthy process and ultimately "tip over". This means that a lot of organic matter, for example in the form of algae, forms in a body of water as a result of fertilization. As a result, the proportion of oxygen in the water drops and the organisms present in the water can die off due to a lack of oxygen. Anaerobic processes are formed, the water begins to stink and "tips over". However, it is not only the nutrients from the manure that contribute to this, but also inputs from sewage treatment plants, industry and traffic.
The nitrogen from the manure also has an impact on plant communities. There are plants that need very few nutrients. If they get too much, they become more susceptible to pests and frost, for example. This is extremely true for bog plants. The entry of nitrogen from the air through rain and thunderstorms, around 25 kg per hectare and year, is enough to change the composition of these plant communities. But also certain plant communities in grassland, especially on our low mountain ranges, such as the herb-rich, poor meadows and pastures, cannot cope with the "normal" nitrogen fertilization, as permitted by the legislature. If liquid manure is spread on these sites, other plants grow much faster and taller, thereby suppressing the typical types of the lean site. The grasses and herbs of a lean lawn, such as the upright trespe or the scabiosa knapweed, are much too weak to compete with grasses of the fatty meadows, such as ryegrass or meadow panicle, and therefore disappear over time. This is why certain plant communities, such as limestone grasslands, are protected from a nature conservation point of view. No manure may be applied here, so that the plant communities are preserved in their composition.
In order to maintain other, nutrient-poor and species-rich grassland locations, farmers can take part in voluntary programs such as extensification or special contractual nature conservation programs. Here it is stipulated when mowing or grazing can take place and whether and, if so, how much organic fertilizer can be applied to the areas. Since less can be harvested from these areas, the participating farmers are compensated.
If liquid manure is introduced into the soil, there are not only direct interactions with the flora, but also with the organisms in the soil. If liquid manure is deposited directly in the soil using the so-called injection process, the soil organisms avoid this concentrated accumulation of nutrients. This delays the conversion of ammonium to nitrate nitrogen. The nitrogen is retained longer than ammonium and is therefore available to the plants for longer and is not leached into the groundwater. In addition, it has been proven that fewer gases are released into the air and the odor is significantly lower.
Manure fertilization also affects the air. The ammonia, which escapes into the air when the liquid manure is spread, leads to a possible acidification or nutrient enrichment of the soil and water if it hits the earth again at another point. Ammonia can also convert to one of the many other environmentally beneficial nitrogen-containing compounds. This has negative consequences for the quality of the air we breathe. This is why it makes sense to deposit slurry on or in the ground - it significantly reduces the release of ammonia and odors.
The liquid manure application can also have an impact on the groundwater. More here:
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