Why composites are light


Composite materials are materials that consist of a combination of different components (e.g. sandwich construction made of wood, PU, ​​PVC). Different material properties can be combined in almost any way in order to increase the mechanical strength or to reduce weight. Materials that are present in fibers are preferably used, as these have the highest strength values ​​(FRP = fiber-reinforced plastics). The interplay between the fiber and the plastic matrix is ​​crucial. Fibers alone can absorb enormous tensile forces in the longitudinal direction, but cannot absorb pressure or bending. Accordingly, even unreinforced, thermoset semi-finished products are brittle and prone to breakage.
Fiber-reinforced materials are both historical and very modern materials, which are also included in the field of bionics / adaptronics. Muscle fibers, wood and various bones, for example, have a similar structure with these properties.

fiberglass reinforced plastic (GRP)

Glass fiber-reinforced plastic has established itself in particular, since glass fibers can be manufactured cheaply, and GRP often provides sufficient mechanical strength, with optimum processability and low weight.
The best mechanical properties are achieved with unidirectional, isotropically aligned fibers in the direction of stress. By selecting the fiber type and fiber orientation according to the load case at hand, the component weight can be significantly reduced compared to conventional materials.
In the case of high chemical loads, e.g. in tank and apparatus construction, special chemical protection resins are processed as a matrix and ECR glass fibers. With this composite material, components that are in permanent contact with problematic media can be made stable and stable.
By adding graphite, the GRP can be given an electrically conductive property. In addition, components made of GRP can be made using color pastes in all RAL tones. If the surface requirements are high, the topcoat layer is also painted.
All the characteristic values ​​of our mixed laminates are available for calculation and design (modulus of elasticity, tensile and flexural strengths, etc.). If necessary, we will of course be happy to hand over the data to you.

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Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)

Compared to GRP, CFRP has a slightly lower density, which is why the material is often used in lightweight construction (motorsport, aerospace). The production and processing of CFRP is usually a little more expensive than GFRP.

Aramid fiber reinforced plastic (AFK)

High strength and light weight - aramid fiber reinforced plastics for heavy loads with low weight. (Kevlar®, application in ballistics e.g. bulletproof vests)

Composite construction with thermoplastics

In our field of application, other combinations are used to increase the specific material advantages.
Advantage: increased resistance, strength, modulus of elasticity - disadvantage: price - effort

Examples of specially made honeycomb sandwich panels

The following combinations have proven themselves in chemical apparatus engineering:

PP / GRP composite
PVDF / GRP composite
PVC / GRP composite
E-CTFE / GRP composite