What is the Polish word for meat?


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A Polish woman was already known in Vienna in the 19th century.



Abstract or assertion

Traditional production of Polish, boiled sausage / meat sausage in Austria.
The Polish consists of a finely chopped meat mass (basic sausage meat) and a coarsely chopped insert of lean pork or beef, as well as of coarsely cut stilt meat, pork head meat, belly meat or bacon.
The Polish is traditionally mostly smoked over hot, aromatic beech wood smoke or smoke-roasted (cooked through in a stream of hot air) and then dried a little.

Product name, product class

Boiled sausage, meat sausage, sausage, meat products

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Groceries and dishes

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DI Wolfgang Wernert

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Industrial and commercial producers

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Polish from Poland:
The smoked sausage Polska Kielbasa Wedzona, known in Poland, has been made from pork using traditional methods for centuries. In 1964, the Polish government introduced another version of the production under the same name, which was then also known as the typical Polska Kielbasa Wedzona: In addition to pork, 20 percent beef was allowed to be used.
Polska Kielbasa Wedzona is the only sausage in Poland that has the word “Polish” in its name and its production is similar to the Polish sausage produced in Austria - but it has only marginally to do with the Austrian Polish. But it can be seen as an indirect forerunner of the Polish from Austria. The Polish sausages probably came to other countries through immigrants.

Polish from Austria:
Already at the time of the k.u.k. In the monarchy, different types of boiled sausage, including probably a Polish sausage-shaped sausage, were produced in Austria.
Friedrich Schlögl (1821 to 1892) already mentioned in 1881 in "The Sausage Season" that there was a Polish in Vienna in the 19th century.
According to the Austrian technical school textbook “Fachkunde im Fleischhauer- und Fleischselchergewerbe” from 1931, the Polish sausage as we know it today was already part of the standard repertoire of the domestic smacking trade at that time.

In the tradition of the last century, different recipe and raw material variants were passed on.

Due to the proximity of Austria to Poland, the Polish has a geographical connection to southern Poland / Silesia, a traditional sausage region. This is where the term “Polish” for an Austrian type of sausage comes from.

Territory / Region:



The Polish is a boiled sausage and is produced as a meat sausage according to the Austrian food book Codex chapter B14.
The Austrian Food Book assigns Polish to type 2a (“Polish special”, “Polish with prominent designation”) and to type 2b (“Polish”).

Type 2b is considered the more common variant.

The Polish consists of a finely chopped meat mass (basic sausage meat) and a coarsely chopped insert of lean pork or beef, as well as of coarsely cut stilt meat, pork head meat, belly meat or bacon.

The Polish is available as off-the-peg or customized.

From the tradition of the Austrian art of sausage making, the assignment of this Polish in linguistic usage as semi-permanent sausage or even permanent sausage emerges. However, there can sometimes be a discrepancy between the use of language and well-written good manufacturing practice. Because the current classification of a product as long-life sausage provides for a caliber of no more than 75 millimeters and a ratio of the ingredients water to total protein of 1.8. This definition of the term shows that today's food code is more precise and restrictive here, as the water protein ratio for Polish people in this guideline must generally be 3.0.

Method of manufacture:

Variety 2a) Polish special, Polish with prominent designation:
50 parts pork I, partly also beef I
25 parts of bacon I.
25 parts sausage meat 30

Type 2a sausages are always smoke-fried, but are not as rich in connective tissue as those of type 2b.

For the medium variety 2b Polish, which is more widely available on the market, the following applies to 100 kilograms of mass:
25 parts lean pork, possibly mixed with first quality beef
10 parts of coarsely cut stilt meat
15 parts pork head meat
25 parts of bacon I.
25 parts sausage meat 30 (sausage meat made from 30 parts of water and 100 parts of medium-quality beef)

Instead of stilt meat and bacon, the material variants also include the use of pork belly meat or the use of god bacon and lean pork head meat.

In the past (often still today) the meat filler was pre-salted for up to 48 hours in order to obtain a more stable, red color in the end product. This filler meat was then pre-ground (pork, for example, to 13 millimeters, the head meat and the stilt meat to 8 millimeters) and mixed with the sausage meat in the mixer in the cutter. Mutton caps (cecum of sheep) or P-intestines (horse's small intestines) were traditionally used for the filling.

Today, depending on the cutting and mixing technology chosen, the meat parts pre-ground to 8 to 13 millimeters and the bacon parts cut to 5 to 6 millimeters are mixed with the sausage meat either in a cutter or in a mixer. In any case, the rough cut of the finished goods is decisive.

The modern sausage filling technology (filling, portioning and sealing in one operation) and the trend towards even, sliceable stick sausage products brought more and more smokable cellulose fiber casings or hide fiber casings (known either as a straight stick or as a sewn mutton cap shape) to use. The common calibers start at around 65 millimeters and go up to 95 millimeters.

Traditionally, beech wood smoke is used to smoke or roast (cooked in a hot air stream) in a hot and dry atmosphere.
At the beginning of the process, the sausage stick is heated for about 1 hour at 50 to 60 degrees Celsius, dried and reddened by adding nitrite curing salt. This is followed by the hot smoking phase for 70 to 90 minutes at 72 degrees Celsius or the roasting phase (= cooking) at a chamber temperature of 80 to 85 degrees Celsius down to the desired core temperature (between 72 and 75 degrees Celsius).

When smoking over beech wood, brewing must then be carried out at around 75 to 78 degrees Celsius, but then a necessary drying loss of around 35 percent can be achieved through suitable post-drying of around 2 to 3 days.

The seasoning consists of black and white pepper, ground coriander, caraway seeds, mustard seeds, alternatively cardamom or ground juniper berries, as well as some garlic.

Variation and related:

Polish sausages are nowadays also understood in Germany, for example, with a coarse filler but with a narrower caliber.

The sausage-shaped sausage produced in Poland today is designed to be heated (caliber 36 to 38 centimeters, is made from the appendix of the sheep and has a coarsely ground filling), the Polish from Austria is considered a hearty sausage variety and is eaten cold as a snack.

Beskid sausage:
The Beskidenwurst (also Beskids) is a development that was only carried out in a Viennese sausage factory in the 1960s.

The characteristics of this hearty meat sausage are similar to the traditions of smoke-roasted meat sausages with coarse fillings from the Silesian-Polish region (example Krakauer). Its name reminds of the low mountain range called Beskydy of this region, which stretch from southern Silesia over Slovakia to the border area with Ukraine to the east.

For possibly reasons of brand policy, the Beskids are also offered on the market under fancy names such as “Beskada” or “Beskidia”.

The Beskids are available as both sausage and sausage products.

The Beskids sausage (in sticks) is enjoyed cold, the Beskids in the form of sausages (rarely found) are served hot and either heated in water or scored on both sides and fried before consumption.

According to the Austrian Food Code, Codex Chapter B14, the Beskids are listed as 2a sausage. The Codex grants the Beskids a similar composition as the Polish with a prominent designation, but practice has allowed this product to be changed somewhat, so that the Beskids have their own “own” recipe:

Example: Beskidenwurst (after DI Wolfgang Wernert):
20 parts sausage meat (30; according to Codex)
50 parts lean pork
30 parts half-lean / half-fat pork

Beskidenwurst is made either in artificial casing in the form of stick sausage, with a caliber of 90 to 95 millimeters, or in the slightly curved cap shape made of hide or cellulose fiber.
The Beskid sausage has between 9 and 11 percent fat compared to the Polish one, which has between 24 and 26 percent fat.
In addition, the Beskids are somewhat larger, between 13 and 30 millimeters, and have a caliber between 90 and 95 millimeters.

Example: Beskid sausage in the form of sausages (according to DI Wolfgang Wernert):
30 parts sausage meat (from 19.8 parts beef I and 10, 2 parts ice cream)
65 parts half fat / half lean pork
5 parts of beef type II, minced to 3 mm

The filling takes place in pork charcoal with caliber 32 to 34, which are twisted off in portions.
The Beskid sausage and Beskid sausage are mostly smoked over beech wood or fried in hot smoke at around 83 degrees Celsius (= cooked).


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Key words

  • Food and Dining, Traditional Knowledge, Austria, Vienna, Boiled Sausage, Meat Sausage, Sausage, Polish, Polish Sausage. Beskid sausage, Beskids, Beskid sausage, Beskada. Beskidia
  • Bibliography / references
  • MAIER-BRUCK F. Classic Austrian cuisine, Seehammer Verlag GmbH, Weyarn, 2003, page 332
  • SCHWARZ F. Wurstrezepte, Fachverlag Mayer & Comp. (I.u.E. Peter), Vienna, 1948, page 65ff
  • SCHWARZ F. / TOPOL R. Expertise for butchers and meat pickers, Dipl.-Ing. Rudolf Bohmann - Indistrie- und Fachverlag, Vienna-Heidelberg, 1950, page 181 ff
  • SPINDLER F. et alii Expertise in the butcher's and smokers' trade, publishing house of the Federal Association of Butchers and Meatlovers in Austria, Vienna, 1931, page 280 ff
  • Beskada
  • Beskydy Mountains
  • Beskidia
  • Permanent sausage
  • Meat sausages
  • Organic smoked Polish from Ja! Naturally
  • Sheaths
  • Austrian Food Book IV. Edition Codex Chapter B 14 Meat and Meat Products
  • News & trends in communication & tourism
  • Polish fresh & dry
  • Polish special
  • Polish product specification
  • Schirnhofer - the Styrian delicatessen specialist
  • The Mystery of Polish Sausage - What is Kielbasa?

All Internet references were last accessed on July 14, 2009.

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DI Wolfgang Wernert, Daniela Trenker B.A., Mag.a Eva Sommer